On my laptop, I have had trouble consistently being able to access machines
on my home network by name (using ping or net view).

So I ran this experiment:

1) Wireless.
.... While connected to wireless, I ran 'ping chaniv'.
.... Result: "Ping request could not find host chaniv. Please check the name
and try again."
2) Wired.
.... I then disabled the wireless network connection (right-click->disable),
and plugged the laptop into one of the wired ports on the same wireless
.... I ran 'ping chaniv' again.
.... Result: Immediate success.

When connected exclusively over wireless, browstat thinks browsing is working:

>browstat status bobo

Status for domain bobo on transport
Browsing is active on domain.
Master browser name is: BOBOX2
Master browser is running build 2600
1 backup servers retrieved from master BOBOX2
There are 2 servers in domain bobo on transport
There are 1 domains in domain bobo on transport

>browstat view 1 bobo

Remoting NetServerEnum to \\BOBOX2 on transport
\Device\NetBT_Tcpip_{F17754C9-0250-4C44-A965-083645F3A0C9} with flags ffffffff
2 entries returned. 2 total. 30 milliseconds


Even though it shows up in the listing above, ping of chaniv doesn't work.
Immediately after doing this, 'ping bobox2' DOES work; whichever of the two
machines is listed as the master browser is temporarily accessible.
Eventually, however, even that host will stop working until I run 'browstat
status bobo' again. Somehow that must be causing the IP of the master
browser to be cached.

Since this only happens when I'm connected wirelessly, and I'm using exactly
the same DHCP server between wired/wireless, can I conclude that my wireless
base station is not passing all the netbios broadcast traffic correctly, in
order to allow name resolution? Or is it also possible my wireless client is
somehow messing up also?

All the wired clients can see each other just fine with 'ping' et al.