How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command? - VMS

This is a discussion on How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command? - VMS ; Hi, I have a simple script running perl 5 alpha vms 7.2, I never succeed in creating any smbol thru perl system command. What did I do wrong? Appreciate if anyone can share some idea. (the exe is a cobol ...

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Thread: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

  1. How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    Hi,

    I have a simple script running perl 5 alpha vms 7.2, I never succeed
    in creating any smbol thru perl system command. What did I do wrong?
    Appreciate if anyone can share some idea. (the exe is a cobol binary
    which needs to accept command line argument, that's why I need to
    create a symbol like this..)

    #!/usr/bin/perl
    system("ED_PROG :== $WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]NEW_LOT_ALI.EXE");

    # I suspect the $ needs to be scaped, actually I couldn't even create
    any symbol no matter how simple it is.

    system("EASY_ONE :== show time");

    # Both gave me symbol undefine message if I tried to execute the
    script.

    fyi: I also post same message in Yahoo group.


  2. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    ed_lin wrote:
    > Hi,
    >
    > I have a simple script running perl 5 alpha vms 7.2, I never succeed
    > in creating any smbol thru perl system command. What did I do wrong?
    > Appreciate if anyone can share some idea. (the exe is a cobol binary
    > which needs to accept command line argument, that's why I need to
    > create a symbol like this..)
    >
    > #!/usr/bin/perl
    > system("ED_PROG :== $WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]NEW_LOT_ALI.EXE");
    >
    > # I suspect the $ needs to be scaped, actually I couldn't even create
    > any symbol no matter how simple it is.


    Yes, the $ needs either to be escaped, or you need to use single quotes,
    but that is not your problem.

    > system("EASY_ONE :== show time");
    >
    > # Both gave me symbol undefine message if I tried to execute the
    > script.


    That is the expected behavior. The symbol that you created only exists
    for the subprocess created by the system command.

    Global scoping of symbols is only passed up in nested DCL command
    procedures, which unlink UNIX are not run in separate processes.

    If you set up a foreign command symbol before starting Perl, it will be
    visible and usable for subprocesses.

    Or you can have Perl call a DCL script that sets up the foreign command
    and then runs your image.

    And finally you can just pass the image name including path to Perl
    along with the parameters, and Perl will use the MCR partial CLI to run
    it with parameters.

    > fyi: I also post same message in Yahoo group.


    Which Yahoo group? I was not aware of any specifically for discussing VMS.

    -John
    wb8tyw@qsl.network
    Personal Opinion Only



  3. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article <1186247198.258201.124460@e16g2000pri.googlegroups. com>,
    ed_lin wrote:

    > Hi,
    >
    > I have a simple script running perl 5 alpha vms 7.2, I never succeed
    > in creating any smbol thru perl system command. What did I do wrong?
    > Appreciate if anyone can share some idea. (the exe is a cobol binary
    > which needs to accept command line argument, that's why I need to
    > create a symbol like this..)
    >
    > #!/usr/bin/perl
    > system("ED_PROG :== $WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]NEW_LOT_ALI.EXE");
    >
    > # I suspect the $ needs to be scaped, actually I couldn't even create
    > any symbol no matter how simple it is.
    >
    > system("EASY_ONE :== show time");
    >
    > # Both gave me symbol undefine message if I tried to execute the
    > script.


    I think you are only defining a symbol in the context of the child
    process, not the parent. If you want to manipulate DCL symbols from
    Perl, I'd recommend the DCLsym module, which has been included in the
    core Perl distribution for many years.

    $ perl -"MVMS:CLsym" -e -
    _$ "$h=new VMS:CLsym; $h->setsym('EASYONE', 'show time');"
    $ easyone
    4-AUG-2007 13:32:24

    --
    Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


  4. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    ed_lin wrote:

    > I have a simple script running perl 5 alpha vms 7.2, I never succeed
    > in creating any smbol thru perl system command. What did I do wrong?
    > Appreciate if anyone can share some idea. (the exe is a cobol binary
    > which needs to accept command line argument, that's why I need to
    > create a symbol like this..)
    >
    > #!/usr/bin/perl
    > system("ED_PROG :== $WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]NEW_LOT_ALI.EXE");
    >
    > # I suspect the $ needs to be scaped, actually I couldn't even create
    > any symbol no matter how simple it is.
    >
    > system("EASY_ONE :== show time");
    >
    > # Both gave me symbol undefine message if I tried to execute the
    > script.


    John nailed the problem -- the context of a system command and its
    created subprocess goes away when the subprocess exits -- and the
    resolution here is to use something like the DCLsym module available via
    CPAN.

    http://kobesearch.cpan.org/htdocs/perl/VMS/DCLsym.html

    There are various perl extensions for OpenVMS.

    You'll also want to look at Automatic Foreign Command mechanism here,
    and at defining the logical name DCL$PATH. This is a searchlist logical
    name that allows you to enter the filename -- NEW_LOG_ALI, here -- and
    use that to excute the image. This assuming that WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]
    is in the searchlist.

    If you're unfamiliar with symbols and logical names, there's an intro
    in the OpenVMS FAQ.

    The FAQ (also) has a pointer to the PerlVMS mailing list (and other
    resources), if you're working with this particular software pairing.

    > fyi: I also post same message in Yahoo group.


    John: "OpenVMS_Friends" is a very quiet and low-traffic group; 11
    messages last month. The current thread over there is the usual "future
    of VMS?" discussion with the most recent posting in the thread being a
    recent graduate seeking "the future of VISTA language" and of dotNET in
    India. Kinda like here in c.o.v., but far less traffic and with all the
    baggage that is Yahoo Groups.



    --
    www.HoffmanLabs.com
    Services for OpenVMS

  5. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article <1186247198.258201.124460@e16g2000pri.googlegroups. com>, ed_lin writes:
    >
    > #!/usr/bin/perl
    > system("ED_PROG :== $WSUSER1:[CSM.ED_COBOL]NEW_LOT_ALI.EXE");
    >
    > # I suspect the $ needs to be scaped, actually I couldn't even create
    > any symbol no matter how simple it is.
    >
    > system("EASY_ONE :== show time");
    >


    Check with the perl documents on this one, but it looks as if you're
    starting a subprocess in which the symbol is defined. Only the
    subprocess will see the symbol.

    I don't know how well perl on VMS manages it's subprocesses. Most
    likely the subprocess soon exists and the symbol definition is lost.

    If you need to define and use a symbol, put all the DCL commands in
    a file and start a subprocess to run that file.


  6. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Aug 4, 2:33 pm, "Craig A. Berry"
    wrote:
    > ed_lin wrote:

    :
    >> I never succeed in creating any smbol thru perl system command.


    > If you want to manipulate DCL symbols from Perl, I'd recommend the DCLsym module,


    Craig is of course correct, that DCLsym is the way to go.
    There is however and alternative, and there is a better solution for
    the real problem

    The Perl alternative is to use the ENV array after redirecting its
    usage to DCL global symbol. The example below shows just that. It also
    shows how by using the single quote 'function' one avoids variable
    substitution and thus the need to escape $.

    $ define PERL_ENV_TABLES CLISYM_
    $ perl -e "$ENV{TEST}=q($more test)"
    $ show symb test
    TEST == "$more test"

    More info? Google: +perl +PERL_ENV_TABLES +CLISYM_LOCAL

    For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?

    As in:
    Using symbol
    $ define sysuaf sys$login:sysuaf.tmp;1
    $ perl -e "$ENV{TEST}=q($authorize); system(q(TEST show default/br))"
    Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    Directory...

    Real solution for real problem using MCR and variable as argument:

    $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    $user/br))"
    Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    Directory...


    Enjoy,
    Hein.


  7. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article <1186421741.970565.15690@g4g2000hsf.googlegroups.co m>,
    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:

    > Real solution for real problem using MCR and variable as argument:
    >
    > $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    > $user/br))"
    > Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    > Directory...


    Good point. For the record, Perl assumes a default extension of .exe
    and automatically prepends the mcr:

    $ perl -e "system('sys$system:lancp show log');"

    SYS$MANAGER:LAN$ACP.LOG latest contents:
    3-AUG-2007 12:13:44.55 Defined LAN$DLL to be SYS$SYSROOT:[MOM$SYSTEM]
    3-AUG-2007 12:13:44.62 Found LAN device EWA0, hardware address
    00-10-64-30-AC-F0
    3-AUG-2007 12:13:44.67 Node database file, LAN$NODE_DATABASE, not found
    3-AUG-2007 12:13:44.93 LANACP initialization complete

    --
    Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


  8. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    >
    > For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?


    Why use MCR?

    Many of the changes that I have been putting into Perl on VMS to make it
    more usable under GNV is to remove the MCR command from places it is not
    needed.

    Please do not use MCR in perl system() calls if you can avoid it.

    Perl is usually smart enough to silently add the MCR it if it really is
    needed.

    Someday Perl might even support using a UNIXY shell like bash instead of
    DCL for these things.

    Possibly something more to add to the VMS specific Perl documentation.

    > Real solution for real problem using MCR and variable as argument:
    >
    > $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    > $user/br))"
    > Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    > Directory...


    Real solution not using MCR. I skipped the argument for my own convenience.

    $ perl -e "system(qq(sys\$system:authorize show DEFAULT/br))"
    Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    Directory

    DEFAULT [200,200] Normal 4
    Disuser

    -John
    wb8tyw@qsl.network
    Personal Opinion Only

  9. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Mon, 06 Aug 2007 20:14:47 -0700, John E. Malmberg
    wrote:

    > Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    >> For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?

    >
    > Why use MCR?
    >
    > Many of the changes that I have been putting into Perl on VMS to make it
    > more usable under GNV is to remove the MCR command from places it is not
    > needed.
    >
    > Please do not use MCR in perl system() calls if you can avoid it.
    >
    > Perl is usually smart enough to silently add the MCR it if it really is
    > needed.
    >
    > Someday Perl might even support using a UNIXY shell like bash instead of
    > DCL for these things.
    >
    > Possibly something more to add to the VMS specific Perl documentation.
    >
    >> Real solution for real problem using MCR and variable as argument:
    >> $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    >> $user/br))"
    >> Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    >> Directory...

    >
    > Real solution not using MCR. I skipped the argument for my own
    > convenience.
    >
    > $ perl -e "system(qq(sys\$system:authorize show DEFAULT/br))"
    > Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    > Directory
    >
    > DEFAULT [200,200] Normal 4
    > Disuser


    Perhaps dumb question, only used Perl once maybe 12 years ago, but can you
    make library calls? If so, is there a starlet lib for Perl, in which case
    there are a number of options

    >
    > -John
    > wb8tyw@qsl.network
    > Personal Opinion Only




    --
    PL/I for OpenVMS
    www.kednos.com

  10. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    Stephen Hoffman wrote:
    > John nailed the problem -- the context of a system command and its
    > created subprocess goes away when the subprocess exits -- and the
    > resolution here is to use something like the DCLsym module available via
    > CPAN.


    Another way to run a foreign command is to define the logical name DCL$PATH:

    system("define/job/user dcl\$path wsuser1:[csm.ed_cobol]");
    system("new_lot_ali foo bar baz");


    DCL$PATH can be a search list. It works sorta like the PATH environment
    variable in some other operating systems.. If what you type happens to
    be an image in DCL$PATH, it gets run as a foreign command.

    I use DCL$PATH a lot. It saves me from having to define a foreign
    command every time I put a new executable in my tools directory.

    -Jeff

  11. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Aug 6, 11:14 pm, "John E. Malmberg" wrote:
    > Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    > > For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?

    > Why use MCR?


    Because interstingly on the box (td183.testdrive) I tried before
    posting I needed MCR to activate authorize which was the example I
    happened to pick on.

    $ define sysuaf sys$login:sysuaf.tmp;1
    $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(sys\$system:authorize show
    $user/br))"
    %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    $user/br))"
    Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    Directory

    DEFAULT [200,200] Normal 4
    Disuser
    $ perl -v
    This is perl, v5.8.6 built for VMS_IA64

    For other examples the MCR is not needed. Thank you!

    Hein.


  12. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article ,
    "Tom Linden" wrote:

    > Perhaps dumb question, only used Perl once maybe 12 years ago, but can you
    > make library calls? If so, is there a starlet lib for Perl, in which case
    > there are a number of options


    Perl is not a native, compiled language and thus obviously does not
    provide direct access to starlet or other libraries via the OpenVMS
    Calling Standard. There are numerous extensions that provide access as
    a rather large library of libraries known as the CPAN (Comprehensive
    Perl Archive Network, ). A few of those provide
    interfaces to OpenVMS system services and run-time libraries and other
    cross-language libraries in a fashion not unlike what Java's JNI would
    do.

    While it would be possible in theory to create an extension that would
    provide all of the system services via the thinnest possible wrapper,
    it would be only slightly less painful to construct item lists, parse
    IOSBs, etc., in Perl than it would be to do so in DCL. Thus the Perl
    extensions that provide this type of support are more likely to do so
    in a manner analogous to DCL lexicals (and in some cases go even
    further in translating bit streams into strings), generally tending to
    avoid the appearance of providing direct access to the underlying
    services.

    --
    Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


  13. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article <1186498136.631175.286780@g4g2000hsf.googlegroups.c om>,
    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:

    > On Aug 6, 11:14 pm, "John E. Malmberg" wrote:
    > > Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    > > > For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?

    > > Why use MCR?

    >
    > Because interstingly on the box (td183.testdrive) I tried before
    > posting I needed MCR to activate authorize which was the example I
    > happened to pick on.
    >
    > $ define sysuaf sys$login:sysuaf.tmp;1
    > $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(sys\$system:authorize show
    > $user/br))"
    > %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    > %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    > $ perl -e "$user=q(DEFAULT); system(qq(mcr sys\$system:authorize show
    > $user/br))"
    > Owner Username UIC Account Privs Pri
    > Directory
    >
    > DEFAULT [200,200] Normal 4
    > Disuser
    > $ perl -v
    > This is perl, v5.8.6 built for VMS_IA64
    >
    > For other examples the MCR is not needed. Thank you!


    I noticed the NOAUDIT error in the example of spawning AUTHORIZE as
    well and found it curious. I verified by stepping through Perl in the
    debugger that when running:

    $ perl -e "system('sys$system:authorize show default/br');"

    the command gets translated to:

    MCR SYS$COMMON:[SYSEXE]AUTHORIZE.EXE;1 show default/br

    before being sent to LIB$SPAWN. But wait, what happens when we simply
    run the same command from DCL:


    $ spawn MCR SYS$COMMON:[SYSEXE]AUTHORIZE.EXE;1 show default/br
    %DCL-S-SPAWNED, process CRAIG_35519 spawned
    %DCL-S-ATTACHED, terminal now attached to process CRAIG_35519
    %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    %DCL-S-RETURNED, control returned to process CRAIG

    There must be some funny business in AUTHORIZE that this trips over,
    but clearly it's a special case whether you're in or out of Perl.

    --
    Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


  14. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Tue, 07 Aug 2007 19:27:59 -0700, Craig A. Berry
    wrote:

    > In article ,
    > "Tom Linden" wrote:
    >
    >> Perhaps dumb question, only used Perl once maybe 12 years ago, but can
    >> you
    >> make library calls? If so, is there a starlet lib for Perl, in which
    >> case
    >> there are a number of options

    >
    > Perl is not a native, compiled language and thus obviously does not
    > provide direct access to starlet or other libraries via the OpenVMS
    > Calling Standard. There are numerous extensions that provide access as
    > a rather large library of libraries known as the CPAN (Comprehensive
    > Perl Archive Network, ). A few of those provide
    > interfaces to OpenVMS system services and run-time libraries and other
    > cross-language libraries in a fashion not unlike what Java's JNI would
    > do.
    >
    > While it would be possible in theory to create an extension that would
    > provide all of the system services via the thinnest possible wrapper,
    > it would be only slightly less painful to construct item lists, parse
    > IOSBs, etc., in Perl than it would be to do so in DCL. Thus the Perl
    > extensions that provide this type of support are more likely to do so
    > in a manner analogous to DCL lexicals (and in some cases go even
    > further in translating bit streams into strings), generally tending to
    > avoid the appearance of providing direct access to the underlying
    > services.
    >

    This is progress?


    --
    PL/I for OpenVMS
    www.kednos.com

  15. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    > On Aug 6, 11:14 pm, "John E. Malmberg" wrote:
    >
    >>Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    >>
    >>>For the real problem though... why not just use 'MCR'?

    >>
    >>Why use MCR?

    >
    >
    > For other examples the MCR is not needed. Thank you!


    I finally remembered why I recommend avoiding MCR. If you use MCR, you
    have to give the file specification in VMS format.

    If not, you can give the specification in either UNIX or VMS format, and
    depending on how the C features are set, some file specifications that
    are currently in VMS may end up showing up in UNIX format, especially in
    future versions of Perl.

    -John
    wb8tyw@qsl.network
    Personal Opinion Only

  16. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Aug 7, 10:53 pm, "Craig A. Berry"
    wrote:
    > In article <1186498136.631175.286...@g4g2000hsf.googlegroups.c om>,
    > Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:


    > $ spawn MCR SYS$COMMON:[SYSEXE]AUTHORIZE.EXE;1 show default/br
    > %DCL-S-SPAWNED, process CRAIG_35519 spawned
    > %DCL-S-ATTACHED, terminal now attached to process CRAIG_35519
    > %SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    > %DCL-S-RETURNED, control returned to process CRAIG
    >
    > There must be some funny business in AUTHORIZE that this trips over,
    > but clearly it's a special case whether you're in or out of Perl.


    Ah! AUTHORIZE is installed with AUDIT priv.
    The explicit version number in the spawn will instruct the system to
    bypass the installed image, thus the process will need its own privs.
    That would apply to any imge installed with priv.

    More over, it means that any non-dcl-verb command will not use the
    installed image and go through a full file open, header parse, section
    map and so on.

    John M, is this something perl could pay attention to? Drop the
    version?

    fwiw... A program can find out whether an image is instralled by
    flipping the undocumented FAB$V_KFO bit and check whether FAB$L_CTX is
    non-zero returning a KFE address. This is what F$FILE(file,"KNOWN")
    implements.

    Hein.


  17. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:
    > On Aug 7, 10:53 pm, "Craig A. Berry"
    > wrote:
    >
    >>In article <1186498136.631175.286...@g4g2000hsf.googlegroups.c om>,
    >> Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:

    >
    >
    >>$ spawn MCR SYS$COMMON:[SYSEXE]AUTHORIZE.EXE;1 show default/br
    >>%DCL-S-SPAWNED, process CRAIG_35519 spawned
    >>%DCL-S-ATTACHED, terminal now attached to process CRAIG_35519
    >>%SYSTEM-F-NOAUDIT, operation requires AUDIT privilege
    >>%DCL-S-RETURNED, control returned to process CRAIG
    >>
    >>There must be some funny business in AUTHORIZE that this trips over,
    >>but clearly it's a special case whether you're in or out of Perl.

    >
    >
    > Ah! AUTHORIZE is installed with AUDIT priv.
    > The explicit version number in the spawn will instruct the system to
    > bypass the installed image, thus the process will need its own privs.
    > That would apply to any imge installed with priv.
    >
    > More over, it means that any non-dcl-verb command will not use the
    > installed image and go through a full file open, header parse, section
    > map and so on.
    >
    > John M, is this something perl could pay attention to? Drop the
    > version?
    >
    > fwiw... A program can find out whether an image is instralled by
    > flipping the undocumented FAB$V_KFO bit and check whether FAB$L_CTX is
    > non-zero returning a KFE address. This is what F$FILE(file,"KNOWN")
    > implements.


    Perl does a LIB$FIND_FILE to obtain the image name that will be put in
    the MCR command. I suppose that dropping the version number could be
    done. I do not see why it would need to be restricted to installed images.

    Craig, any thoughts? It should not be a big change.

    There is a lot on my TODO list for Perl though, especially in getting
    full support of EFS filenames to work.

    -John
    wb8tyw@qsl.network
    Personal Opinion Only

  18. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    On Aug 8, 12:43 am, "John E. Malmberg" wrote:
    > Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:

    :
    > > fwiw... A program can find out whether an image is instralled by
    > > flipping the undocumented FAB$V_KFO bit and check whether FAB$L_CTX is
    > > non-zero returning a KFE address. This is what F$FILE(file,"KNOWN")
    > > implements.

    >
    > Perl does a LIB$FIND_FILE to obtain the image name that will be put in
    > the MCR command. I suppose that dropping the version number could be
    > done. I do not see why it would need to be restricted to installed images.


    Me neither. Just strip the version... more Unix like that way.

    My known file comment was added for sake of completeness, not as a
    suggestion it should be used. Sorry if it caused confusion.

    Keep up the good work!
    Hein.


  19. Re: How can I create symbol thru Perl "system" command?

    In article <1186548668.918167.83920@19g2000hsx.googlegroups.co m>,
    Hein RMS van den Heuvel wrote:

    > On Aug 8, 12:43 am, "John E. Malmberg" wrote:


    > > Perl does a LIB$FIND_FILE to obtain the image name that will be put in
    > > the MCR command. I suppose that dropping the version number could be
    > > done. I do not see why it would need to be restricted to installed images.

    >
    > Me neither. Just strip the version... more Unix like that way.


    My one caveat would be that we should only strip the version when it's
    not explicitly specified, but that shouldn't be too hard. The relevant
    bit would be in the setup_cmddsc function in [.vms]vms.c in the Perl
    distribution, most easily browsed here:

    http://public.activestate.com/cgi-bi...se/f/vms/vms.c

    Patches welcome, but I may even get around to this myself someday.

    --
    Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


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