Chat? - Ubuntu

This is a discussion on Chat? - Ubuntu ; I'm having a problem in 7.10 with Ubuntu using my dial-up modem to put me on-line when I boot the system, even before logging on. In /var/log/messages I see chat [4230] ATDT5970568^M^M which is what appears to be doing this. ...

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Thread: Chat?

  1. Chat?

    I'm having a problem in 7.10 with Ubuntu using my dial-up modem to put me
    on-line when I boot the system, even before logging on.

    In

    /var/log/messages

    I see

    chat [4230] ATDT5970568^M^M

    which is what appears to be doing this. Why is this being called? I never
    use on-line chat and did not install any related programs I am aware of.
    How can I get rid of it? When I originally installed my modem this did
    not occur.

    TIA

    Ken


    --
    "When you choose the lesser of two evils, always
    remember that it is still an evil." - Max Lerner







  2. Re: Chat?

    On 2008-08-01, Ken wrote:
    > I'm having a problem in 7.10 with Ubuntu using my dial-up modem to put me
    > on-line when I boot the system, even before logging on.
    >
    > In
    >
    > /var/log/messages
    >
    > I see
    >
    > chat [4230] ATDT5970568^M^M
    >
    > which is what appears to be doing this. Why is this being called? I never
    > use on-line chat and did not install any related programs I am aware of.
    > How can I get rid of it? When I originally installed my modem this did
    > not occur.


    Your ppp connection program, called pppd, calls a program called
    "chat" to talk to the modem. Chat reports what it does as far as
    dialing, etc is concerned.
    --
    Due to extreme spam originating from Google Groups, and their inattention
    to spammers, I and many others block all articles originating
    from Google Groups. If you want your postings to be seen by
    more readers you will need to find a different means of
    posting on Usenet.
    http://improve-usenet.org/

  3. Re: Chat?

    On 1 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in article
    , Ken wrote:

    >I'm having a problem in 7.10 with Ubuntu using my dial-up modem to put
    >me on-line when I boot the system, even before logging on.


    Yes - somewhere in your windoz^H^H^H^H^H^HGnome desktop, you told
    Gnome to make the connection. Like Clifford, I don't use GUI stuff
    for such trivial tasks.

    Of the files you have listed in your comp.os.linux.networking post,
    I'd be looking at what /etc/init.d/pppd-dns is configured to do, and
    why it's there. In that post, you identified

    /etc/apm/event.d/ppp

    that also could be involved.

    >In
    >
    >/var/log/messages
    >
    >I see
    >
    >chat [4230] ATDT5970568^M^M
    >
    >which is what appears to be doing this. Why is this being called?


    Because you told the desktop to make the connection at startup. Why?
    I have no idea - possibly because it was offered as an option to you,
    and you accepted without knowing what it is.

    >I never use on-line chat and did not install any related programs I am
    >aware of.


    [compton ~]$ whatis chat
    chat (8) - Automated conversational script with a modem
    [compton ~]$

    This isn't IRC. '/usr/sbin/chat' is the application that comes with
    ppp, and is used to dial the modem. It's called by the 'connect' option
    to pppd, but that's not the problem. The problem is why are you running
    pppd on start up.

    >How can I get rid of it? When I originally installed my modem this did
    >not occur.


    Seeing as how it's part of ppp, you need only remove the ppp package,
    but I doubt that's what you want to do. You want to find what stupid
    Gnome configuration is dialing out at boot time. As a followup to what
    Clifford told you, you could try searching the dot files in your home
    directory to see if you are calling it there.

    find ~ -type f -exec grep -H pppd {} \;

    may find it.

    Old guy

  4. Re: Chat?

    On Sat, 02 Aug 2008 17:12:52 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:
    [snip]
    >
    > find ~ -type f -exec grep -H pppd {} \;


    I'm new to Linux (using Ubuntu 8.04) and would be grateful if you would
    point me in the direction where I can begin to understand this command
    string and others like it. Part of my background is programming, in Asm
    and C, (if that helps) although not for some years. Thanks in advance.

    Incidentally this machine's DSL connection also appears to be active
    momentarily during the boot process and I thought it was checking the
    local clock settings against external sources (an option) but continues
    when this option is turned off.

  5. Re: Chat?

    Alan Illeman wrote:
    > On Sat, 02 Aug 2008 17:12:52 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:
    > [snip]
    >
    >> find ~ -type f -exec grep -H pppd {} \;
    >>

    >
    > I'm new to Linux (using Ubuntu 8.04) and would be grateful if you would
    > point me in the direction where I can begin to understand this command
    > string and others like it. Part of my background is programming, in Asm
    > and C, (if that helps) although not for some years. Thanks in advance.
    >
    > Incidentally this machine's DSL connection also appears to be active
    > momentarily during the boot process and I thought it was checking the
    > local clock settings against external sources (an option) but continues
    > when this option is turned off.


    Alan, I think the manual pages will explain it pretty good.

    For instance:

    man find

    will get you the info for the option "-type f"

    Which means find a regular file type (not a directory, symlink, etc.).

    Unexplained in man find (a.k.a. "find(1)") is the tilde ("~") used as an
    abbreviation for the directory or path. It symbolizes the logged-in
    user's home directory. If you are using the username "alan" (logged in
    as "alan") then ~ is the same as using /home/alan for the path to your
    home directory.

    Running find with the ~ path indicator forces find to look only in your
    home directory.

    However, if your present working directory is your home directory, then
    find will run the same without the tilde, but it will show the path
    using the ./ designator meaning "this directory" in the resulting output.

    If you Change Directory (cd) to another directory, and don't use the
    tilde, then you will still see the ./ in the output, but the path will
    be different as it is showing the present working directory
    (discoverable with the pwd command).

    Then man find continues with the -exec as follows:

    -exec command ;
    Execute command; true if 0 status is returned. All
    following
    arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command
    until
    an argument consisting of ‘;’ is encountered. The
    string ‘{}’
    is replaced by the current file name being processed
    everywhere
    it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in
    arguments
    where it is alone, as in some versions of find. Both of
    these
    constructions might need to be escaped (with a ‘\’) or
    quoted to
    protect them from expansion by the shell. See the
    EXAMPLES sec‐
    tion for examples of the use of the ‘-exec’ option. The
    speci‐
    fied command is run once for each matched file. The
    command is
    executed in the starting directory. There are
    unavoidable
    security problems surrounding use of the -exec
    option; you
    should use the -execdir option instead.

    Then you need to check

    man grep

    To see what find then executed. The grep command will print lines
    matching a pattern, in this case pppd. Grep saves much time looking
    through long printouts of haystack data while searching for the needles.

    Grep's option -H will print the filename for each match, since that is
    your primary objective.

    If you also used the -H option in the find command, then find would not
    follow symbolic links ("symlinks" are called "shortcuts" in
    WindowsSpeak, and "aliases" in MacSpeak, but are more powerful in the
    Unix world).

    The man pages are a place to obtain very useful information.

    If you really get frustrated, never forget the apropos command for
    jogging your memory.

    If you want to see what it is for, try:

    man apropos

    Hope that helps, and welcome to GNU/Linux and Unix. We can use all the C
    help you can give. ;-)


    --
    John

    No Microsoft, Apple, AT&T, Intel, Novell, Trend Micro, nor Ford products were used in the preparation or transmission of this message.

    The EULA sounds like it was written by a team of lawyers who want to tell me what I can't do. The GPL sounds like it was written by a human being, who wants me to know what I can do.

  6. Re: Chat?

    On Mon, 04 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in article
    <3sednaIbZuc2bgvVnZ2dnUVZ_jKdnZ2d@supernews.com>, Alan Illeman wrote:

    >Moe Trin wrote:


    >> find ~ -type f -exec grep -H pppd {} \;


    > I'm new to Linux (using Ubuntu 8.04) and would be grateful if you would
    >point me in the direction where I can begin to understand this command
    >string and others like it.


    Oh, my! Well, the first place to start would be the manual page for the
    command in question - here, it would be 'man find'. You use the arrow
    keys to move around in the page, and the 'q' key to quit. Most man
    configurations are set to use 'less' as the pager, so viewing the man
    page for 'less' (man less) will show you a lot of other tricks, such as
    using the '/' key to search for words or character strings.

    [compton ~]$ whatis find
    find (1) - search for files in a directory hierarchy
    [compton ~]$

    The 'find' command is broken into three parts - options, tests, and
    actions. There are a lot of ways to use this command, and what I showed
    here was broken down as follows:

    find the command to run

    ~ this symbol refers to the user's home directory, and is
    the place to _start_ the search. Without a '-mindepth'
    or '-maxdepth' option, this will search from the
    starting point, and go through a files/directories
    below this point. There can be multiple starting points
    if desired.

    -type f Test - search for files

    -exec Action - run the command that follows on each thing you
    find.

    grep a text matching tool - "print lines matching a pattern"

    -H Option to grep - print filename _and_ matching text

    pppd text to search for

    {} \; part of '-exec' - run the command on the thing that was
    found

    So, what this does is to search for files at and below the user's home
    directory that contain the character string 'pppd' and show the filename
    and text when found.

    >Part of my background is programming, in Asm and C, (if that helps)
    >although not for some years. Thanks in advance.


    As you know, you don't start programming by simply reading the manual
    of instructions. Even K&R "The C Programming Language" comes with lots
    of examples in the book to show how things are done. Well, guess what.

    * Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO, BASH Programming - Introduction HOWTO

    Updated: Jul 2000. This article intends to help you to start programming
    basic-to-intermediate shell scripts.

    If you installed the HOWTOs, that should be in /usr/share/HOWTO/

    -rw-rw-r-- 1 gferg ldp 31540 Jul 27 2000 Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO

    The followup to that is the magnificent 'Advanced Bash Scripting Guide'
    which you find at http://tldp.org/guides.html

    * Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide
    version: 5.3 (Mar 2008)
    author: Mendel Cooper,
    last update: May 2008
    available formats:
    1. HTML (read online) 2. HTML (read online, single file, 2.0M)
    3. HTML (tarred and gzipped package, 581K) 4. PDF (2.3M)
    5. PostScript (1.3M) 6. text (457k)
    7. PluckerDB (602k)
    This document is both a tutorial and a reference on shell scripting
    with Bash. It assumes no previous knowledge of scripting or
    programming, but progresses rapidly toward an intermediate/advanced
    level of instruction. The exercises and heavily-commented examples
    invite active reader participation. Still, it is a work in progress.
    The intention is to add much supplementary material in future
    updates to this document, as it evolves into a comprehensive book
    that matches or surpasses any of the shell scripting manuals in
    print.

    There is also a 'Bash Guide for Beginners' at the same URL.

    * Bash Guide for Beginners
    version: 1.10
    author: Machtelt Garrels,
    last update: Jun 2008
    ISBN: 0-9744339-4-2
    available formats:
    1. HTML (read online) 2. HTML (read online, single file, 531k)
    3. HTML (tarred and gzipped package, 399k) 4. PDF (1.2M)
    5. PostScript (1.0M) 6. text (106k) 7. PluckerDB (165k)
    The Bash Guide for Beginners gets you started with Bash scripting
    and bridges the gap between the Bash HOWTO and the Advanced Bash
    Scripting Guide. Everybody who wants to make life easier on
    themselves, power users and sysadmins alike, can benefit from
    reading this practical course. The guide contains lots of examples
    and exercises at the end of each chapter, demonstrating the theory
    and helping you practice. Bash is available on a wide variety of
    UNIX, Linux, MS Windows and other systems.

    You'll likely see me (and others) posting command strings like I did
    above. We do this for two reasons - one is to answer some question that
    a poster may have. The other reason is to encourage people to look at the
    command, and see 'what is it doing'. The average Linux box comes with a
    bewildering number of commands - ready for some more examples?

    [compton ~]$ echo $PATH
    /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/home/ibuprofin/bin
    [compton ~]$ ls `echo $PATH | tr ':' ' '` | egrep -v '(:|^$)' | wc -l
    1346
    [compton ~]$

    WATCH THE QUOTES!!! Unlike DOS or windoze, UNIX (and Linux is a clone
    or look-alike of UNIX) doesn't look in "this" directory when you type a
    command. It _only_ looks at internal shell commands, and in the PATH. The
    command beginning with 'ls' is a series of commands piped together to get
    some information that an individual command wouldn't provide. Here, the
    sequence looks in my PATH, and counts the number of entries (files) there.
    So, I have (as a user) 1346 commands available to me. Now, let's play
    with that 'find command again:

    [compton ~]$ find `echo $PATH | tr ':' ' '` -type f -atime -30 | wc -l
    267
    [compton ~]$

    Slight difference here. 'find' is told to search in multiple places
    (the '`echo $PATH' displays a list of directories, and the 'tr ':' ' '` '
    replaces the colon that separates the directories with a space - giving
    find a list of five directories to search from). Again, I'm looking for
    files, and a second test - those that have been accessed in less than
    30 days. As I'm not including an 'Action', 'find' defaults to listing
    the filename, and the pipe to a counter simply counts the number of
    files found.

    In the last 30 days, I (and everyone else using this system) have only
    used 267 of those 1346 commands. This means you don't have to learn
    every one of the commands on the system (they're there if you need
    them). Typically, I'm using less than 100 of those commands.

    >Incidentally this machine's DSL connection also appears to be active
    >momentarily during the boot process and I thought it was checking the
    >local clock settings against external sources (an option) but continues
    >when this option is turned off.


    Hard to say, as there are dozens of possible things that could be going
    on - everything from getting an IP address from the DHCP server, to
    checking for the latest updates.

    Old guy

  7. Re: Chat?

    Alan Illeman wrote:

    > On Sat, 02 Aug 2008 17:12:52 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:
    > [snip]
    >>
    >> find ~ -type f -exec grep -H pppd {} \;

    >
    > I'm new to Linux (using Ubuntu 8.04) and would be grateful if you would
    > point me in the direction where I can begin to understand this command
    > string and others like it. Part of my background is programming, in Asm
    > and C, (if that helps) although not for some years. Thanks in advance.


    A good thing to start with is "Rute User's Tutorial and Exposition":
    Install the package rutebook and go to /usr/share/doc/rutebook/.
    Some parts (especially the ones about configuring some programs) are
    a bit out of date but IMHO it's still a very good book.

    If you want to know some more about shell scripting the "Advanced
    Bash-Scripting Guide" is for you (package abs-guide, see
    /usr/share/doc/abs-guide).

    The "Debian Reference" (package debian-reference-en,
    /usr/share/doc/Debian/reference) and the APT Howto (package
    apt-howto-en, /usr/share/doc/Debian/apt-howto) are focused on Debian
    (which Ubuntu is derived from) and some things are a bit different for
    Ubuntu (like release names and the repositories) but most of it is
    still useful.




    Florian
    --

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    ** Hi! I'm a signature virus! Copy me into your signature, please! **
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------

  8. Re: Chat?

    On Mon, 04 Aug 2008 12:35:33 -0500, John F. Morse wrote:

    > Alan Illeman wrote:

    [snip]

    > Alan, I think the manual pages will explain it pretty good.
    >
    > For instance:

    [snip]

    Thanks John, I appreciate that!
    I've lots to do.

    > Hope that helps, and welcome to GNU/Linux and Unix. We can use all the C
    > help you can give. ;-)


    That too ;-)

  9. Re: Chat?

    On Mon, 04 Aug 2008 14:54:16 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:
    [snip]
    Thanks very much for your help. I've lots to do!

  10. Re: Chat?

    On Mon, 04 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in article
    , Alan Illeman wrote:

    >Thanks very much for your help. I've lots to do!


    If you were comfortable with MS-DOS, you may find another HOWTO useful:

    -rw-rw-r-- 1 gferg ldp 61734 Aug 31 2000 DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO

    but what-ever you do, remember one very important thing: The initial
    stages of the *nix learning curve is not vertical. 89.999 degrees is
    not 90.000. ;->

    As others have indicated, there is a lot of help available, both in the
    documentation, and the existing users. Hang in there! Do look at the
    books available for free download from http://tldp.org/guides.html.

    Old guy

  11. Re: Chat?

    On Mon, 04 Aug 2008 21:33:32 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:

    > On Mon, 04 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in
    > article , Alan Illeman
    > wrote:
    >
    >>Thanks very much for your help. I've lots to do!

    >
    > If you were comfortable with MS-DOS, you may find another HOWTO useful:
    >
    > -rw-rw-r-- 1 gferg ldp 61734 Aug 31 2000
    > DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO
    >
    > but what-ever you do, remember one very important thing: The initial
    > stages of the *nix learning curve is not vertical. 89.999 degrees is
    > not 90.000. ;->
    >
    > As others have indicated, there is a lot of help available, both in the
    > documentation, and the existing users. Hang in there! Do look at the
    > books available for free download from http://tldp.org/guides.html.
    >
    > Old guy


    Yes, once I was in love with DOS ;-)

    3 files I downloaded for offline study:
    intro-linux.txt.gz, Bash-Beginners Guide.txt.gz, abs-guide.txt.gz - but
    can't seem to open them. What is this ".gz" thingy? (perhaps you would
    also explain ".tar" too) Tia, Alan

  12. Re: Chat?

    Alan Illeman wrote:
    > On Mon, 04 Aug 2008 21:33:32 -0500, Moe Trin wrote:
    >
    >
    >> On Mon, 04 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in
    >> article , Alan Illeman
    >> wrote:
    >>
    >>
    >>> Thanks very much for your help. I've lots to do!
    >>>

    >> If you were comfortable with MS-DOS, you may find another HOWTO useful:
    >>
    >> -rw-rw-r-- 1 gferg ldp 61734 Aug 31 2000
    >> DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO
    >>
    >> but what-ever you do, remember one very important thing: The initial
    >> stages of the *nix learning curve is not vertical. 89.999 degrees is
    >> not 90.000. ;->
    >>
    >> As others have indicated, there is a lot of help available, both in the
    >> documentation, and the existing users. Hang in there! Do look at the
    >> books available for free download from http://tldp.org/guides.html.
    >>
    >> Old guy
    >>

    >
    > Yes, once I was in love with DOS ;-)
    >
    > 3 files I downloaded for offline study:
    > intro-linux.txt.gz, Bash-Beginners Guide.txt.gz, abs-guide.txt.gz - but
    > can't seem to open them. What is this ".gz" thingy? (perhaps you would
    > also explain ".tar" too) Tia, Alan
    >



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gzip

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_%28file_format%29


    --
    John

    No Microsoft, Apple, AT&T, Intel, Novell, Trend Micro, nor Ford products were used in the preparation or transmission of this message.

    The EULA sounds like it was written by a team of lawyers who want to tell me what I can't do. The GPL sounds like it was written by a human being, who wants me to know what I can do.

  13. Re: Chat?

    On Tue, 05 Aug 2008, in the Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux.ubuntu, in article
    <-rmdnYPuiYFOTwXVnZ2dnUVZ_q7inZ2d@supernews.com>, Alan Illeman wrote:

    >Yes, once I was in love with DOS ;-)


    The last version of DOS I used was 5.0 in 1992, and it had a total of
    70-75 commands. *nix generally has a lot more, but as noted you rarely
    use that many different ones.

    >3 files I downloaded for offline study:
    >intro-linux.txt.gz, Bash-Beginners Guide.txt.gz, abs-guide.txt.gz - but
    >can't seem to open them.


    How did you try? All three open just fine using a tool like 'zless'

    >What is this ".gz" thingy?


    The .gz suffix indicates that the file has been compressed using the
    GNU gzip program.

    [compton ~]$ whatis gzip gunzip
    gzip (1) - compress or expand files
    gzip [gunzip] (1) - compress or expand files
    gunzip (1) - compress or expand files
    gunzip [gzip] (1) - compress or expand files
    [compton ~]$

    This is one of four data compression schemes used in *nix. You may
    be familiar with the old 'zip' or 'pkzip' program from Phil Katz
    commonly used in the DOS/windoze world (file extension .zip) - we've
    got that too

    [compton ~]$ whatis zip unzip
    zip (1) - package and compress (archive) files
    unzip (1) - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
    [compton ~]$

    along with an older and less common compress/uncompress (file extension
    ..Z) and the more powerful bzip2 (file extension .bz2) which uses the
    commands bzip2 and bunzip2. 'compress' is the least efficient, zip
    and gzip more so, and bzip2 most efficient. There aren't many tools
    using the 'compress' or 'zip' format, but there are several tools for
    gzip and bzip2

    zcat bzcat display the whole contents of a file
    zless bzless display the file using a pager like less
    zgrep bzgrep search for strings in a file

    >(perhaps you would also explain ".tar" too)


    tar == Tape ARchive - it's a mechanism of putting a whole bunch of
    files into a single file - originally so you could back things up to
    1/2 inch tape. Most *nix commands start life as something simple,
    and grow to have tons of bells, whistles, eye-candy, and everything
    else added. While UNIX was developed at Bell Labs in New Jersey, a
    huge amount of additional features were added by universities around
    the globe. Things got _further_ out of hand because organizations like
    the Free Software Foundation got into the act - their products are
    known by the GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) acronym, and are used/found on a
    great many UNIX and UNIX-like systems. Tar was one of these tools
    or commands that grew like crazy. Not only that, there are several
    versions of tar - the one used most often is GNU tar. 'tar' has it's
    own man page (man tar) as well as a GNU "info" page (similar in concept
    to a man page, but different - start with 'info info' to see how to use
    that monstrosity), and built-in help:

    [compton ~]$ man tar | wc
    264 859 11722
    [compton ~]$ info tar 2>/dev/null | wc
    7854 51770 340322
    [compton ~]$ tar --help | wc
    112 740 6154
    [compton ~]$

    There are a bewildering number of options to the tar command, but the
    bottom line is that it copies the files you designate into an archive
    along with directory information (permissions, ownership, date/time,
    size and filename). This allows you to recreate those designated
    files, either on the original system after the user deleted them
    accidentally (that's why they're called backups), or on a different
    system on the other side of the globe. From a DOS/windoze viewpoint,
    it's similar in concept to what pkzip was used for. Tar doesn't
    compress files or the archive _by_default_ (file extension .tar),
    but the archive may be 'compressed' (.tar.Z), gziped (.tar.gz OR .tgz),
    or bzip'ed (.tar.bz2). There is no need to be able to compress or
    uncompress the mess using pkzip/zip, as that application does much of
    the same work as tar, and compresses things too.

    Old guy

  14. Re: Chat?

    On Tue, 05 Aug 2008 17:36:54 -0500, John F. Morse wrote:
    > Alan Illeman wrote:
    >>
    >> 3 files I downloaded for offline study: intro-linux.txt.gz,
    >> Bash-Beginners Guide.txt.gz, abs-guide.txt.gz - but can't seem to open
    >> them. What is this ".gz" thingy? (perhaps you would also explain ".tar"
    >> too) Tia, Alan
    >>
    >>

    >
    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gzip
    >
    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_%28file_format%29


    Yep, I deserved that.

    I have another query..

    The file Bash-Beginners Guide.txt, when double clicked on, comes up in
    gedit but depressing the "down-arrow-key" when the cursor it at the
    bottom of the page, doesn't advance the view by just a single line, but
    several lines (which can be confusing when studying).

    However the file boot/grub/menu.lst (which also comes up in gedit) DOES
    advance one line at a time (for example).

    Secondly I don't really require to "edit" Bash-Beginners Guide.txt - all
    I need is a "file viewer" with perhaps options on printing - or can I
    mark the file as "read-only"?

    Properties=>Permissions=>Owner Access == read only : doesn't stop me from
    editing the file, if I purposely save the file with a different filename.
    I may be going off my rocker here - can't remember (happens to most of us
    who pass the age of 70 years) what Windows did in this situation.

    Thanks John. (thanks to Moe too)

    Alan


  15. Re: Chat?

    On Wed, 06 Aug 2008 17:41:32 -0500, Alan Illeman wrote:
    >
    > Secondly I don't really require to "edit" Bash-Beginners Guide.txt - all
    > I need is a "file viewer" with perhaps options on printing - or can I
    > mark the file as "read-only"?


    Use your browser. :-)

    the url would be /wherever/file/located/fn_here

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