Best Layout - Solaris

This is a discussion on Best Layout - Solaris ; -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA1 ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote: > I need your best advice of best layout for future packages > installation [my hard 160GB] holding (Sol10/intel) > Sol 10 recognize HD as followed : > > / : 9509 ...

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Thread: Best Layout

  1. Re: Best Layout

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    ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    > I need your best advice of best layout for future packages
    > installation [my hard 160GB] holding (Sol10/intel)
    > Sol 10 recognize HD as followed :
    >
    > / : 9509
    > /swap : 594
    > overlap: 152613
    > /export/home: 142498
    >
    > I need to expand /var for future installations ? Please advice the best
    > .
    >


    the most important things have already been pointed out:
    - - swapsize considerations
    - - live upgrade planning
    - - metadb reservation

    But one point I have been missing:
    Allocating a whole lot to /export/home make sense because Solaris has
    lofs(7fs). With lofs it is easily possible to accommodate missing space
    in any part of the filesystem.

    E.g. you run out of space in /opt and want to add SUNWspro (Sun Studio 11):
    mkdir /export/spare/SUNWspro
    mkdir /opt/SUNWspro
    mount -F lofs /export/spare/SUNWspro /opt/SUNWspro

    Now you get the space you need in /opt by mounting the directory from
    /export/spare/SUNWspro. Therefore I usually rename /export/home to
    /export/spare and mkdir /export/spare/home where all the homedirectories
    will be.

    BTW: this is not the same as a symlink, as lofs mounts are handled
    differently during find etc.

    Tom
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  2. Re: Best Layout

    Thomas Maier-Komor wrote:
    > -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
    > Hash: SHA1
    >
    > ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    >> I need your best advice of best layout for future packages
    >> installation [my hard 160GB] holding (Sol10/intel)
    >> Sol 10 recognize HD as followed :
    >>
    >> / : 9509
    >> /swap : 594
    >> overlap: 152613
    >> /export/home: 142498
    >>
    >> I need to expand /var for future installations ? Please advice the best
    >> .
    >>

    >
    > the most important things have already been pointed out:
    > - - swapsize considerations
    > - - live upgrade planning
    > - - metadb reservation
    >
    > But one point I have been missing:
    > Allocating a whole lot to /export/home make sense because Solaris has
    > lofs(7fs). With lofs it is easily possible to accommodate missing space
    > in any part of the filesystem.
    >
    > E.g. you run out of space in /opt and want to add SUNWspro (Sun Studio 11):
    > mkdir /export/spare/SUNWspro
    > mkdir /opt/SUNWspro
    > mount -F lofs /export/spare/SUNWspro /opt/SUNWspro
    >
    > Now you get the space you need in /opt by mounting the directory from
    > /export/spare/SUNWspro. Therefore I usually rename /export/home to
    > /export/spare and mkdir /export/spare/home where all the homedirectories
    > will be.
    >
    > BTW: this is not the same as a symlink, as lofs mounts are handled
    > differently during find etc.
    >
    > Tom


    Tom, is it really just a bad idea, primarily desktop use anyway, to not
    separate /home/export on it's own partition and just leave that under /
    (root)?

  3. Re: Best Layout

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    Wes W wrote:
    >
    > Tom, is it really just a bad idea, primarily desktop use anyway, to not
    > separate /home/export on it's own partition and just leave that under /
    > (root)?


    I'd say that cannot be answered with a definite "no" or "yes". It
    strongly depends on your style of administration. Consider the pros and
    cons of having /export/home on a separate slice.

    Pro separating / into different filesystems:
    - - you can easily reinstall the OS by newfs'ing / and not losing your
    data in /export/home
    - - you might want to handle /export/home differently than / (e.g.
    /export/home as a RAID-1 and / as a regular or a concat device)
    - - live-upgrade is easier if /export/home is handled separately
    - - you can more easily benefit of having multiple disks (e.g.
    /export/home / and alternate / on separate disks)
    - - you can assign stronger limitation for special ares (e.g. mounting
    /usr read-only and /var/tmp with nosetuid).
    - - whatever else you might come up with

    Pro everything under /:
    - - you'll never run into a situation where you have space left in one
    slice that cannot be easily used in another
    - - whatever else you might come up with

    OK, if I look at the summary again, forget the everything under /
    approach... ;-)

    But other people might add points that I have missed and YMMV.

    Cheers,
    Tom
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  4. Re: Best Layout

    On Thu, 30 Mar 2006 10:47:19 +1200, Ian Collins wrote:

    > ohaya wrote:
    >>>The majority of your space is in /export/home, so may be some poor
    >>>installation time choices :-)

    >>
    >>
    >>
    >> Hi,
    >>
    >> Sorry to jump in, but since working with Solaris, I've always been
    >> curious:
    >>
    >> Why DOES the Solaris installer do that, i.e., assign most of the drive
    >> space to /export/home, and just a wee bit to /?
    >>

    > Because it's broken? Users have been whinging for years that the
    > installer assigns too little space to /. Maybe it goes back to the days
    > of small drives?


    No, because you don't need a large / .
    Yes, there are some anomalies in the Solaris install, the worst being the
    options on the old "install CD".

    But the installation stops and asks you if you are happy with the layout,
    the choice is yours.

    Currently with Sol10 I would recommend a minimum of 5Gb in / and the any
    spare in /export.

    There was a stage of recomending "free" for /, but with large disks that
    leads to big mirror sync times.

    With my laptop having most space (80gb) in / it means I can do an install
    with preserve when I wanto blow the OS away and start again, currentl on
    Nevada but may need to return to Sol10 at some point.

    --
    Bruce

    "The internet is a huge and diverse community and
    not every one is friendly"
    http://www.ytc1.co.uk


  5. Re: Best Layout

    Thomas Maier-Komor wrote:
    >
    > E.g. you run out of space in /opt and want to add SUNWspro (Sun Studio 11):
    > mkdir /export/spare/SUNWspro
    > mkdir /opt/SUNWspro
    > mount -F lofs /export/spare/SUNWspro /opt/SUNWspro
    >
    > Now you get the space you need in /opt by mounting the directory from
    > /export/spare/SUNWspro. Therefore I usually rename /export/home to
    > /export/spare and mkdir /export/spare/home where all the homedirectories
    > will be.
    >
    > BTW: this is not the same as a symlink, as lofs mounts are handled
    > differently during find etc.
    >

    Are they handled correctly during an upgrade install? I gave up using
    links for this once I'd trashed a system with a link to /var during an
    upgrade.


    --
    Ian Collins.

  6. Re: Best Layout

    Ian Collins wrote:
    > Thomas Maier-Komor wrote:
    >> E.g. you run out of space in /opt and want to add SUNWspro (Sun Studio 11):
    >> mkdir /export/spare/SUNWspro
    >> mkdir /opt/SUNWspro
    >> mount -F lofs /export/spare/SUNWspro /opt/SUNWspro
    >>
    >> Now you get the space you need in /opt by mounting the directory from
    >> /export/spare/SUNWspro. Therefore I usually rename /export/home to
    >> /export/spare and mkdir /export/spare/home where all the homedirectories
    >> will be.
    >>
    >> BTW: this is not the same as a symlink, as lofs mounts are handled
    >> differently during find etc.
    >>

    > Are they handled correctly during an upgrade install? I gave up using
    > links for this once I'd trashed a system with a link to /var during an
    > upgrade.
    >
    >


    AFAIK no. With lofs a live upgrade can be handled correctly, but you
    must take care to setup your filesystem correctly with lucreate. You can
    check it with lufslist and lumount.

  7. Re: Best Layout



    Andrew Gabriel wrote:
    >
    > In article <1143672439.650672@drone2-svc-skyt.qsi.net.nz>,
    > Ian Collins writes:
    > > Because it's broken? Users have been whinging for years that the
    > > installer assigns too little space to /. Maybe it goes back to the days
    > > of small drives?

    >
    > The installer makes space for what it knows it will install.
    > Since you might be later installing anything from nothing extra
    > through to 10 times the initial Solaris installed software, there
    > isn't any way it can allow for this by itself. However, it does
    > allow you to specify very precisely how much disk space you want,
    > and where.
    >
    > Perhaps, without going into the manual disk layout, an additional
    > question asking how much extra space to allow in /opt for software
    > to be installed later? Then of course there's broken add-on
    > software like the sunfreeware.com stuff which installs in the wrong
    > place. I don't see an easy answer.



    Hi,

    I just wanted to say that I've appreciated this interesting discussion.
    It's been very helpful to me. As I read through all the posts, I think
    that I realized that the pros vs. cons probably depends on what the
    environment/use of the systems are.

    In my case, the systems that I'm working on now are primarily targeted
    for some specific server application or applications, i.e., any given
    system isn't going to have more than a couple of non-default users,
    which would be required for the apps (e.g., "oracle" for Oracle or
    "dmadmin" for Documentum). So, in my case, there is no real need for
    much space in /export/home at all. I can see if I were running a server
    that multiple users were logging into and running their own
    applications, having more space in /export/home would make sense.

    Thanks again for the stimulating (and educational) thread (even tho I
    wasn't the OP !)...

    Jim

  8. Re: Best Layout

    Thomas Maier-Komor wrote:
    > -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
    > Hash: SHA1
    >
    > Wes W wrote:
    >> Tom, is it really just a bad idea, primarily desktop use anyway, to not
    >> separate /home/export on it's own partition and just leave that under /
    >> (root)?

    >
    > I'd say that cannot be answered with a definite "no" or "yes". It
    > strongly depends on your style of administration. Consider the pros and
    > cons of having /export/home on a separate slice.
    >
    > Pro separating / into different filesystems:
    > - - you can easily reinstall the OS by newfs'ing / and not losing your
    > data in /export/home
    > - - you might want to handle /export/home differently than / (e.g.
    > /export/home as a RAID-1 and / as a regular or a concat device)
    > - - live-upgrade is easier if /export/home is handled separately
    > - - you can more easily benefit of having multiple disks (e.g.
    > /export/home / and alternate / on separate disks)
    > - - you can assign stronger limitation for special ares (e.g. mounting
    > /usr read-only and /var/tmp with nosetuid).
    > - - whatever else you might come up with
    >
    > Pro everything under /:
    > - - you'll never run into a situation where you have space left in one
    > slice that cannot be easily used in another
    > - - whatever else you might come up with
    >
    > OK, if I look at the summary again, forget the everything under /
    > approach... ;-)
    >
    > But other people might add points that I have missed and YMMV.
    >
    > Cheers,
    > Tom



    Thanks for your take on things. Me being me, I'll stick to the all
    under / for my tastes as I regularly backup my home directory to other
    file systems and it's easy for me to wipe a system clean for reinstall,
    create a new user account, and simply copy my data back.

    Since I have two 74Gb drives and I'm too lazy to learn to RAID UFS in
    Solaris now, I may have a big change of heart when I start playing with
    ZFS and may snag the latest Community Express release soon and do just
    that. Since root RAID will be some months off, I may adopt separate
    partitions just for the ZFS RAID on the non-root partitions.

    Informative posts Tom, much appreciated.

  9. Re: Best Layout

    Still I need advice or right and specific figures of manual layout of
    160 GB HardDrive ,and that layout is suitable ofr future installs.
    Please give me number for each slice to not be forced to reinstall
    Sol10 again .
    Thanks


  10. Re: Best Layout

    ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    > Still I need advice or right and specific figures of manual layout of
    > 160 GB HardDrive ,and that layout is suitable ofr future installs.
    > Please give me number for each slice to not be forced to reinstall
    > Sol10 again .
    > Thanks
    >

    You should be safe with the following on that drive:

    0 / 16Gb
    1 swap 1Gb
    3 16Gb
    4 64Mb
    7 /export/home What ever's left.

    Slice 3 is for live upgrade, slice 4 for metadb replicas if you choose
    to use SVM.

    --
    Ian Collins.

  11. Re: Best Layout

    On 1 Apr 2006 09:34:03 -0800
    ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:

    > Still I need advice or right and specific figures of manual layout of
    > 160 GB HardDrive ,and that layout is suitable ofr future installs.
    > Please give me number for each slice to not be forced to reinstall
    > Sol10 again .


    A possible layout would be 20GB for the root, 20GB for Live Update,
    another 20GB for /var, and 20GB for swap. The remaining 80GB goes
    to /export for user directories.

    Take care,

    --
    Stefaan
    --
    As complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning,
    and meaningful statements lose precision. -- Lotfi Zadeh

  12. Re: Best Layout

    Is the manual layout valid only through only the custom jumpstart ?


  13. Re: Best Layout

    ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    > Is the manual layout valid only through only the custom jumpstart ?
    >

    No. Just select customise when the installer asks you.

    --
    Ian Collins.

  14. Re: Best Layout

    ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    > I need your best advice of best layout for future packages
    > installation [my hard 160GB] holding (Sol10/intel)
    > Sol 10 recognize HD as followed :
    >
    > / : 9509
    > /swap : 594
    > overlap: 152613
    > /export/home: 142498
    >
    > I need to expand /var for future installations ? Please advice the best
    > .
    >


    swap = RAM + 64MB
    / = total HD - swap

    NO /export/home
    NO other slices!

  15. Re: Best Layout

    ohaya wrote:
    >>The majority of your space is in /export/home, so may be some poor
    >>installation time choices :-)

    >
    >
    >
    > Hi,
    >
    > Sorry to jump in, but since working with Solaris, I've always been
    > curious:
    >
    > Why DOES the Solaris installer do that, i.e., assign most of the drive
    > space to /export/home, and just a wee bit to /?
    >
    > Jim


    Because on Solaris, the size of / does not fluctuate much.

  16. Re: Best Layout

    Bruce Porter wrote:

    > Currently with Sol10 I would recommend a minimum of 5Gb in / and the any
    > spare in /export.


    Why would you recommend it?
    It is not optimal disk space usage.

    > There was a stage of recomending "free" for /, but with large disks that
    > leads to big mirror sync times.


    Not any more; the SVM sync routines have been improved to sync only
    blocks which do not match. For more information, refer to Sunjay
    Tripathy's blog.

  17. Re: Best Layout

    Wes W wrote:

    > Surprising not mentioned yet, you could assign /swap to the same amount
    > as your RAM and the rest of the disk to / (root) and simply be done with
    > it. I've found this schema works well for general desktop use, but
    > you may still prefer to allocate /var manually if you are running many,
    > or exclusively, service services.


    Correct, and assigning the rest of the free space solely to root makes
    for optimal space usage. Gone are the days of small disks and separate
    FileSystems.

  18. Re: Best Layout

    UX-admin wrote:
    > ehabaziz2001@gmail.com wrote:
    >
    >> I need your best advice of best layout for future packages
    >> installation [my hard 160GB] holding (Sol10/intel)
    >> Sol 10 recognize HD as followed :
    >>
    >> / : 9509
    >> /swap : 594
    >> overlap: 152613
    >> /export/home: 142498
    >>
    >> I need to expand /var for future installations ? Please advice the best
    >> .
    >>

    >
    > swap = RAM + 64MB
    > / = total HD - swap
    >
    > NO /export/home
    > NO other slices!


    Poor advise if you ever intend to use live upgrade.

    --
    Ian Collins.

  19. Re: Best Layout

    On Wed, 05 Apr 2006 20:19:24 +0200, UX-admin wrote:

    > Bruce Porter wrote:
    >
    >> Currently with Sol10 I would recommend a minimum of 5Gb in / and the any
    >> spare in /export.

    >
    > Why would you recommend it?
    > It is not optimal disk space usage.


    Because it leaves room for growth, maybe someone wants to add KDE as well
    as Gnome etc.

    It is horses for courses, but I personally use /var/tmp for dumping large
    files into.

    >
    >> There was a stage of recomending "free" for /, but with large disks that
    >> leads to big mirror sync times.

    >
    > Not any more; the SVM sync routines have been improved to sync only
    > blocks which do not match. For more information, refer to Sunjay
    > Tripathy's blog.


    In a "clean" state, yes. Not at initial build and not after a disk
    replacement.

    Waiting around for a sync to finish on a large disk when you need to
    bounce the box to do some more work is a PITA

    --
    Bruce

    "The internet is a huge and diverse community and
    not every one is friendly"
    http://www.ytc1.co.uk


  20. Re: Best Layout

    UX-admin wrote:

    > swap = RAM + 64MB
    > / = total HD - swap
    >
    > NO /export/home
    > NO other slices!


    I think this is basically right but over-simplistic, especially given
    today's large system disks (do any Suns ship with less than 72GB system
    disks now?).

    I tend to make a really substantial /, /var on another partition, also
    substantial, enough swap (see below) and then the rest in something
    like /export/home. That's often half the disk or more, but, well, so
    what? And it can help with upgrades - even if you don't want to do
    live upgrade (I never have), being able to dump the system onto that
    slice is nice, so you can go back quickly. For a desktop I might not
    bother with a /var slice (but I probably would).

    As for enough swap - the memory + x is a nice idea, but doesn't work on
    big machines. But you probably don't want to dump all of memory on
    them anyway.

    --tim


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