I've seen the following issue confound customers and colleagues of late, so thought it worth a blog entry.

Lets say you have an application that exhibits negative scalability. That is, if you were to plot throughput on the Y-axis and concurrency on the X-axis the shape of the curve would
be convex downward -- performance climbs up to an apex and then falls off. (How can this happen? A common reason is that the communication overheads start to dominate and the
benefit of concurrency is overcome by communication and synchronization costs). Under such circumstances it's common to introduce some type of admission control -- say, simple
back-off or more elaborate mechanisms -- to restrict concurrency. Ideally, this yields an asymptotic curve where performance remains constant after reaching the peak, avoiding any

If you tune the performance of such an application using the usual measure-analyze-modify cycle but pay attention only to the throughput values at high concurrency levels then you
might be badly misled. The usual development feedback loop can fail because poor "optimizations" that slow down the code may actually serve as inadvertent implicit back-off (contention
management) that will attenuate the negative scalability at higher concurrency levels but also needlessly impair performance at lower concurrency levels. Ideally, back-off should
be applied only as needed, in response to contention.

A related effect is that inserting diagnostic probes might yield better performance in the region of negative scalability because of probe overhead -- a performance "Heisenbug" where
performance improves when execution is more closely observed.

The take-away is that we should be careful to measure the performance of any proposed change over a wide range of concurrency values, and not just at the extremes.