How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host - Redhat

This is a discussion on How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host - Redhat ; Hi there, This is NOT a normal virtual host. Here is my scenario: Currently, I have a secure web server https://server1.company.com running on Apache2 on Red Hat Linux. The port 80 is disabled. Only is port 443 open. The Listen ...

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Thread: How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host

  1. How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host

    Hi there,
    This is NOT a normal virtual host. Here is my scenario:

    Currently, I have a secure web server https://server1.company.com running on
    Apache2 on Red Hat Linux. The port 80 is disabled. Only is port 443 open.
    The Listen directive is commented out in the httpd.conf, and SSL is
    configured under conf.d/ssl.conf. It's working well.

    Now, I want to create a non-secure virtual host called:
    http://server2.company.com on the same machine.

    I tried both name-based virtual host and IP-based virtual host, and I tried
    to add directives to httpd.conf:
    Listen 1.1.1.1:443 #for server1
    Listen 2.2.2.2:80 #for server2
    and
    NameVirtualHost 1.1.1.1:443
    NameVirtualHost 2.2.2.2:80
    and
    related VirtualHost directives.

    But I can't get the server2 work, and I also get warning:
    Init: (server1.company.com:443) You configured HTTP(80) on the standard
    HTTPS(443) port!

    Any idea, or documents, or links would be appreciated.
    Ross



  2. Re: How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host

    Ross wrote:
    > Hi there,
    > This is NOT a normal virtual host. Here is my scenario:
    >
    > Currently, I have a secure web server https://server1.company.com running on
    > Apache2 on Red Hat Linux. The port 80 is disabled. Only is port 443 open.
    > The Listen directive is commented out in the httpd.conf, and SSL is
    > configured under conf.d/ssl.conf. It's working well.
    >
    > Now, I want to create a non-secure virtual host called:
    > http://server2.company.com on the same machine.
    >
    > I tried both name-based virtual host and IP-based virtual host, and I tried
    > to add directives to httpd.conf:
    > Listen 1.1.1.1:443 #for server1
    > Listen 2.2.2.2:80 #for server2
    > and
    > NameVirtualHost 1.1.1.1:443
    > NameVirtualHost 2.2.2.2:80
    > and
    > related VirtualHost directives.
    >
    > But I can't get the server2 work, and I also get warning:
    > Init: (server1.company.com:443) You configured HTTP(80) on the standard
    > HTTPS(443) port!
    >
    > Any idea, or documents, or links would be appreciated.
    > Ross
    >
    >

    How about an example,

    httpd.conf

    #
    # This is the main Apache server configuration file. It contains the
    # configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
    # See for detailed information.
    # In particular, see
    #
    # for a discussion of each configuration directive.
    #
    #
    # Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
    # what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure
    # consult the online docs. You have been warned.
    #
    # The configuration directives are grouped into three basic sections:
    # 1. Directives that control the operation of the Apache server process
    as a
    # whole (the 'global environment').
    # 2. Directives that define the parameters of the 'main' or 'default'
    server,
    # which responds to requests that aren't handled by a virtual host.
    # These directives also provide default values for the settings
    # of all virtual hosts.
    # 3. Settings for virtual hosts, which allow Web requests to be sent to
    # different IP addresses or hostnames and have them handled by the
    # same Apache server process.
    #
    # Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
    # of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
    # server will use that explicit path. If the filenames do *not* begin
    # with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "logs/foo.log"
    # with ServerRoot set to "/etc/httpd" will be interpreted by the
    # server as "/etc/httpd/logs/foo.log".
    #

    ### Section 1: Global Environment
    #
    # The directives in this section affect the overall operation of Apache,
    # such as the number of concurrent requests it can handle or where it
    # can find its configuration files.
    #

    #
    # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents
    # we are running. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites
    # finding out what major optional modules you are running
    ServerTokens OS

    #
    # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
    # configuration, error, and log files are kept.
    #
    # NOTE! If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
    # mounted filesystem then please read the LockFile documentation
    # (available at
    );
    # you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
    #
    # Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
    #
    ServerRoot "/etc/httpd"

    #
    # PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
    # identification number when it starts.
    #
    PidFile run/httpd.pid

    #
    # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
    #
    Timeout 120

    #
    # KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
    # one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
    #
    KeepAlive On

    #
    # MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
    # during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
    # We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
    #
    MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

    #
    # KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
    # same client on the same connection.
    #
    KeepAliveTimeout 15

    ##
    ## Server-Pool Size Regulation (MPM specific)
    ##

    # prefork MPM
    # StartServers: number of server processes to start
    # MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare
    # MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare
    # ServerLimit: maximum value for MaxClients for the lifetime of the server
    # MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start
    # MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

    StartServers 40
    MinSpareServers 20
    MaxSpareServers 60
    ServerLimit 100
    MaxClients 100
    MaxRequestsPerChild 4000


    # worker MPM
    # StartServers: initial number of server processes to start
    # MaxClients: maximum number of simultaneous client connections
    # MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare
    # MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare
    # ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process
    # MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

    StartServers 20
    MaxClients 150
    MinSpareThreads 25
    MaxSpareThreads 75
    ThreadsPerChild 25
    MaxRequestsPerChild 150


    #
    # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
    # ports, in addition to the default. See also the
    # directive.
    #
    # Change this to Listen on specific IP addresses as shown below to
    # prevent Apache from glomming onto all bound IP addresses (0.0.0.0)
    #
    #Listen 12.34.56.78:80
    Listen 80

    #
    # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
    #
    # To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a
    DSO you
    # have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
    # directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
    # Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
    # to be loaded here.
    #
    # Example:
    # LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
    #
    LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.so
    LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.so
    LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.so
    LoadModule authn_alias_module modules/mod_authn_alias.so
    LoadModule authn_anon_module modules/mod_authn_anon.so
    LoadModule authn_dbm_module modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
    LoadModule authn_default_module modules/mod_authn_default.so
    LoadModule authz_host_module modules/mod_authz_host.so
    LoadModule authz_user_module modules/mod_authz_user.so
    LoadModule authz_owner_module modules/mod_authz_owner.so
    LoadModule authz_groupfile_module modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
    LoadModule authz_dbm_module modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
    LoadModule authz_default_module modules/mod_authz_default.so
    LoadModule ldap_module modules/mod_ldap.so
    LoadModule authnz_ldap_module modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
    LoadModule include_module modules/mod_include.so
    LoadModule log_config_module modules/mod_log_config.so
    LoadModule logio_module modules/mod_logio.so
    LoadModule env_module modules/mod_env.so
    LoadModule ext_filter_module modules/mod_ext_filter.so
    LoadModule mime_magic_module modules/mod_mime_magic.so
    LoadModule expires_module modules/mod_expires.so
    LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so
    LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_headers.so
    LoadModule usertrack_module modules/mod_usertrack.so
    LoadModule setenvif_module modules/mod_setenvif.so
    LoadModule mime_module modules/mod_mime.so
    #LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so
    #LoadModule status_module modules/mod_status.so
    LoadModule autoindex_module modules/mod_autoindex.so
    #LoadModule info_module modules/mod_info.so
    #LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so
    LoadModule vhost_alias_module modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
    LoadModule negotiation_module modules/mod_negotiation.so
    LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so
    LoadModule actions_module modules/mod_actions.so
    LoadModule speling_module modules/mod_speling.so
    LoadModule userdir_module modules/mod_userdir.so
    LoadModule alias_module modules/mod_alias.so
    LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so
    #LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
    #LoadModule proxy_balancer_module modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
    #LoadModule proxy_ftp_module modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
    #LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/mod_proxy_http.so
    #LoadModule proxy_connect_module modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
    LoadModule cache_module modules/mod_cache.so
    LoadModule suexec_module modules/mod_suexec.so
    LoadModule disk_cache_module modules/mod_disk_cache.so
    LoadModule file_cache_module modules/mod_file_cache.so
    LoadModule mem_cache_module modules/mod_mem_cache.so
    LoadModule cgi_module modules/mod_cgi.so

    #
    # The following modules are not loaded by default:
    #
    #LoadModule cern_meta_module modules/mod_cern_meta.so
    #LoadModule asis_module modules/mod_asis.so

    #
    # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.d".
    #
    Include conf.d/*.conf

    #
    # ExtendedStatus controls whether Apache will generate "full" status
    # information (ExtendedStatus On) or just basic information (ExtendedStatus
    # Off) when the "server-status" handler is called. The default is Off.
    #
    #ExtendedStatus On

    #
    # If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
    # httpd as root initially and it will switch.
    #
    # User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
    # . On SCO (ODT 3) use "User nouser" and "Group nogroup".
    # . On HPUX you may not be able to use shared memory as nobody, and the
    # suggested workaround is to create a user www and use that user.
    # NOTE that some kernels refuse to setgid(Group) or semctl(IPC_SET)
    # when the value of (unsigned)Group is above 60000;
    # don't use Group #-1 on these systems!
    #
    User apache
    Group apache

    ### Section 2: 'Main' server configuration
    #
    # The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
    # server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
    # definition. These values also provide defaults for
    # any containers you may define later in the file.
    #
    # All of these directives may appear inside containers,
    # in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
    # virtual host being defined.
    #

    #
    # ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
    # e-mailed. This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
    # as error documents. e.g. admin@your-domain.com
    #
    ServerAdmin drew@spamalot.com

    #
    # ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify
    itself.
    # This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
    # it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
    #
    # If this is not set to valid DNS name for your host, server-generated
    # redirections will not work. See also the UseCanonicalName directive.
    #
    # If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address
    here.
    # You will have to access it by its address anyway, and this will make
    # redirections work in a sensible way.
    #
    ServerName stats.spamalot.com

    #
    # UseCanonicalName: Determines how Apache constructs self-referencing
    # URLs and the SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT variables.
    # When set "Off", Apache will use the Hostname and Port supplied
    # by the client. When set "On", Apache will use the value of the
    # ServerName directive.
    #
    UseCanonicalName Off

    #
    # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
    # documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
    # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
    #
    DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"

    #
    # Each directory to which Apache has access can be configured with respect
    # to which services and features are allowed and/or disabled in that
    # directory (and its subdirectories).
    #
    # First, we configure the "default" to be a very restrictive set of
    # features.
    #

    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None


    #
    # Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
    # particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
    # you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
    # below.
    #

    #
    # This should be changed to whatever you set DocumentRoot to.
    #


    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    # Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important. Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    # Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride None

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all



    #
    # UserDir: The name of the directory that is appended onto a user's home
    # directory if a ~user request is received.
    #
    # The path to the end user account 'public_html' directory must be
    # accessible to the webserver userid. This usually means that ~userid
    # must have permissions of 711, ~userid/public_html must have permissions
    # of 755, and documents contained therein must be world-readable.
    # Otherwise, the client will only receive a "403 Forbidden" message.
    #
    # See also: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html#forbidden
    #

    #
    # UserDir is disabled by default since it can confirm the presence
    # of a username on the system (depending on home directory
    # permissions).
    #
    #UserDir enable

    #
    # To enable requests to /~user/ to serve the user's public_html
    # directory, remove the "UserDir disable" line above, and uncomment
    # the following line instead:
    #
    UserDir www



    #
    # Control access to UserDir directories. The following is an example
    # for a site where these directories are restricted to read-only.
    #

    AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec

    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all



    #
    # DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
    # is requested.
    #
    # The index.html.var file (a type-map) is used to deliver content-
    # negotiated documents. The MultiViews Option can be used for the
    # same purpose, but it is much slower.
    #
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.html.var index.htm index.shtml index.php
    index.php4 index.php3 index.phtml index.cgi index

    #
    # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
    # for additional configuration directives. See also the AllowOverride
    # directive.
    #
    AccessFileName .htaccess

    #
    # The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
    # viewed by Web clients.
    #

    Order allow,deny
    Deny from all


    #
    # TypesConfig describes where the mime.types file (or equivalent) is
    # to be found.
    #
    TypesConfig /etc/mime.types

    #
    # DefaultType is the default MIME type the server will use for a document
    # if it cannot otherwise determine one, such as from filename extensions.
    # If your server contains mostly text or HTML documents, "text/plain" is
    # a good value. If most of your content is binary, such as applications
    # or images, you may want to use "application/octet-stream" instead to
    # keep browsers from trying to display binary files as though they are
    # text.
    #
    DefaultType text/plain

    #
    # The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
    # contents of the file itself to determine its type. The MIMEMagicFile
    # directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
    #

    # MIMEMagicFile /usr/share/magic.mime
    MIMEMagicFile conf/magic


    #
    # HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
    # e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
    # The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
    # had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
    # each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
    # nameserver.
    #
    HostnameLookups Off

    #
    # EnableMMAP: Control whether memory-mapping is used to deliver
    # files (assuming that the underlying OS supports it).
    # The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
    # filesystems. On some systems, turning it off (regardless of
    # filesystem) can improve performance; for details, please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod...tml#enablemmap
    #
    #EnableMMAP off

    #
    # EnableSendfile: Control whether the sendfile kernel support is
    # used to deliver files (assuming that the OS supports it).
    # The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
    # filesystems. Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod...enablesendfile
    #
    #EnableSendfile off

    #
    # ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
    # If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a
    # container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
    # logged here. If you *do* define an error logfile for a
    # container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
    #
    ErrorLog logs/error_log

    #
    # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
    # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
    # alert, emerg.
    #
    LogLevel warn

    #
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    #
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\""
    combined
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
    LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
    LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

    # "combinedio" includes actual counts of actual bytes received (%I) and
    sent (%O); this
    # requires the mod_logio module to be loaded.
    #LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"
    %I %O" combinedio

    #
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a
    # container, they will be logged here. Contrariwise, if you *do*
    # define per- access logfiles, transactions will be
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    #
    #CustomLog logs/access_log common

    #
    # If you would like to have separate agent and referer logfiles, uncomment
    # the following directives.
    #
    #CustomLog logs/referer_log referer
    #CustomLog logs/agent_log agent

    #
    # For a single logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    # (Combined Logfile Format), use the following directive:
    #
    CustomLog logs/access_log combined

    #
    # Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
    # name to server-generated pages (internal error documents, FTP directory
    # listings, mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated
    # documents or custom error documents).
    # Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
    # Set to one of: On | Off | EMail
    #
    ServerSignature off

    #
    # Aliases: Add here as many aliases as you need (with no limit). The
    format is
    # Alias fakename realname
    #
    # Note that if you include a trailing / on fakename then the server will
    # require it to be present in the URL. So "/icons" isn't aliased in this
    # example, only "/icons/". If the fakename is slash-terminated, then the
    # realname must also be slash terminated, and if the fakename omits the
    # trailing slash, the realname must also omit it.
    #
    # We include the /icons/ alias for FancyIndexed directory listings. If you
    # do not use FancyIndexing, you may comment this out.
    #
    Alias /icons/ "/var/www/icons/"


    Options Indexes MultiViews
    AllowOverride None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    #
    # WebDAV module configuration section.
    #

    # Location of the WebDAV lock database.
    DAVLockDB /var/lib/dav/lockdb


    #
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts.
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    # documents in the realname directory are treated as applications and
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the
    client.
    # The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias directives as to
    # Alias.
    #
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/var/www/cgi-bin/"

    #
    # "/var/www/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
    # CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
    #

    AllowOverride None
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    #
    # Redirect allows you to tell clients about documents which used to exist in
    # your server's namespace, but do not anymore. This allows you to tell the
    # clients where to look for the relocated document.
    # Example:
    # Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

    #
    # Directives controlling the display of server-generated directory listings.
    #

    #
    # IndexOptions: Controls the appearance of server-generated directory
    # listings.
    #
    IndexOptions FancyIndexing VersionSort NameWidth=* HTMLTable

    #
    # AddIcon* directives tell the server which icon to show for different
    # files or filename extensions. These are only displayed for
    # FancyIndexed directories.
    #
    AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip

    AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
    AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
    AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
    AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

    AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe
    AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx
    AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar
    AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
    AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip
    AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
    AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
    AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt
    AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c
    AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py
    AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for
    AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi
    AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
    AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
    AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex
    AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core

    AddIcon /icons/back.gif ..
    AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README
    AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^
    AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^

    #
    # DefaultIcon is which icon to show for files which do not have an icon
    # explicitly set.
    #
    DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif

    #
    # AddDescription allows you to place a short description after a file in
    # server-generated indexes. These are only displayed for FancyIndexed
    # directories.
    # Format: AddDescription "description" filename
    #
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed document" .gz
    #AddDescription "tar archive" .tar
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz

    #
    # ReadmeName is the name of the README file the server will look for by
    # default, and append to directory listings.
    #
    # HeaderName is the name of a file which should be prepended to
    # directory indexes.
    ReadmeName README.html
    HeaderName HEADER.html

    #
    # IndexIgnore is a set of filenames which directory indexing should ignore
    # and not include in the listing. Shell-style wildcarding is permitted.
    #
    IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t

    #
    # DefaultLanguage and AddLanguage allows you to specify the language of
    # a document. You can then use content negotiation to give a browser a
    # file in a language the user can understand.
    #
    # Specify a default language. This means that all data
    # going out without a specific language tag (see below) will
    # be marked with this one. You probably do NOT want to set
    # this unless you are sure it is correct for all cases.
    #
    # * It is generally better to not mark a page as
    # * being a certain language than marking it with the wrong
    # * language!
    #
    # DefaultLanguage nl
    #
    # Note 1: The suffix does not have to be the same as the language
    # keyword --- those with documents in Polish (whose net-standard
    # language code is pl) may wish to use "AddLanguage pl .po" to
    # avoid the ambiguity with the common suffix for perl scripts.
    #
    # Note 2: The example entries below illustrate that in some cases
    # the two character 'Language' abbreviation is not identical to
    # the two character 'Country' code for its country,
    # E.g. 'Danmark/dk' versus 'Danish/da'.
    #
    # Note 3: In the case of 'ltz' we violate the RFC by using a three char
    # specifier. There is 'work in progress' to fix this and get
    # the reference data for rfc1766 cleaned up.
    #
    # Catalan (ca) - Croatian (hr) - Czech (cs) - Danish (da) - Dutch (nl)
    # English (en) - Esperanto (eo) - Estonian (et) - French (fr) - German (de)
    # Greek-Modern (el) - Hebrew (he) - Italian (it) - Japanese (ja)
    # Korean (ko) - Luxembourgeois* (ltz) - Norwegian Nynorsk (nn)
    # Norwegian (no) - Polish (pl) - Portugese (pt)
    # Brazilian Portuguese (pt-BR) - Russian (ru) - Swedish (sv)
    # Simplified Chinese (zh-CN) - Spanish (es) - Traditional Chinese (zh-TW)
    #
    AddLanguage ca .ca
    AddLanguage cs .cz .cs
    AddLanguage da .dk
    AddLanguage de .de
    AddLanguage el .el
    AddLanguage en .en
    AddLanguage eo .eo
    AddLanguage es .es
    AddLanguage et .et
    AddLanguage fr .fr
    AddLanguage he .he
    AddLanguage hr .hr
    AddLanguage it .it
    AddLanguage ja .ja
    AddLanguage ko .ko
    AddLanguage ltz .ltz
    AddLanguage nl .nl
    AddLanguage nn .nn
    AddLanguage no .no
    AddLanguage pl .po
    AddLanguage pt .pt
    AddLanguage pt-BR .pt-br
    AddLanguage ru .ru
    AddLanguage sv .sv
    AddLanguage zh-CN .zh-cn
    AddLanguage zh-TW .zh-tw

    #
    # LanguagePriority allows you to give precedence to some languages
    # in case of a tie during content negotiation.
    #
    # Just list the languages in decreasing order of preference. We have
    # more or less alphabetized them here. You probably want to change this.
    #
    LanguagePriority en ca cs da de el eo es et fr he hr it ja ko ltz nl nn
    no pl pt pt-BR ru sv zh-CN zh-TW

    #
    # ForceLanguagePriority allows you to serve a result page rather than
    # MULTIPLE CHOICES (Prefer) [in case of a tie] or NOT ACCEPTABLE (Fallback)
    # [in case no accepted languages matched the available variants]
    #
    ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

    #
    # Specify a default charset for all content served; this enables
    # interpretation of all content as UTF-8 by default. To use the
    # default browser choice (ISO-8859-1), or to allow the META tags
    # in HTML content to override this choice, comment out this
    # directive:
    #
    AddDefaultCharset UTF-8

    #
    # AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
    # file mime.types for specific file types.
    #
    #AddType application/x-tar .tgz

    #
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    # Despite the name similarity, the following Add* directives have nothing
    # to do with the FancyIndexing customization directives above.
    #
    #AddEncoding x-compress .Z
    #AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz

    # If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
    # probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
    #
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

    #
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    # or added with the Action directive (see below)
    #
    # To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
    # (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

    #
    # For files that include their own HTTP headers:
    #
    #AddHandler send-as-is asis

    #
    # For type maps (negotiated resources):
    # (This is enabled by default to allow the Apache "It Worked" page
    # to be distributed in multiple languages.)
    #
    AddHandler type-map var

    #
    # Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
    #
    # To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
    # (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    AddType text/html .shtml
    AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml

    #
    # Action lets you define media types that will execute a script whenever
    # a matching file is called. This eliminates the need for repeated URL
    # pathnames for oft-used CGI file processors.
    # Format: Action media/type /cgi-script/location
    # Format: Action handler-name /cgi-script/location
    #

    #
    # Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
    # 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
    #
    # Some examples:
    #ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
    #ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
    #ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
    #ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
    #

    #
    # Putting this all together, we can internationalize error responses.
    #
    # We use Alias to redirect any /error/HTTP_.html.var response to
    # our collection of by-error message multi-language collections. We use
    # includes to substitute the appropriate text.
    #
    # You can modify the messages' appearance without changing any of the
    # default HTTP_.html.var files by adding the line:
    #
    # Alias /error/include/ "/your/include/path/"
    #
    # which allows you to create your own set of files by starting with the
    # /var/www/error/include/ files and
    # copying them to /your/include/path/, even on a per-VirtualHost basis.
    #

    Alias /error/ "/var/www/error/"




    AllowOverride None
    Options IncludesNoExec
    AddOutputFilter Includes html
    AddHandler type-map var
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
    LanguagePriority en es de fr
    ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback


    ErrorDocument 400 /error/HTTP_BAD_REQUEST.html.var
    ErrorDocument 401 /error/HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 403 /error/HTTP_FORBIDDEN.html.var
    ErrorDocument 404 /error/HTTP_NOT_FOUND.html.var
    ErrorDocument 405 /error/HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 408 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_TIME_OUT.html.var
    ErrorDocument 410 /error/HTTP_GONE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 411 /error/HTTP_LENGTH_REQUIRED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 412 /error/HTTP_PRECONDITION_FAILED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 413 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 414 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 415 /error/HTTP_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 500 /error/HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.html.var
    ErrorDocument 501 /error/HTTP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 502 /error/HTTP_BAD_GATEWAY.html.var
    ErrorDocument 503 /error/HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 506 /error/HTTP_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES.html.var




    #
    # The following directives modify normal HTTP response behavior to
    # handle known problems with browser implementations.
    #
    BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
    BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "Java/1\.0" force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "JDK/1\.0" force-response-1.0

    #
    # The following directive disables redirects on non-GET requests for
    # a directory that does not include the trailing slash. This fixes a
    # problem with Microsoft WebFolders which does not appropriately handle
    # redirects for folders with DAV methods.
    # Same deal with Apple's DAV filesystem and Gnome VFS support for DAV.
    #
    BrowserMatch "Microsoft Data Access Internet Publishing Provider"
    redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "MS FrontPage" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^WebDrive" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^WebDAVFS/1.[0123]" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^gnome-vfs/1.0" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^XML Spy" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^Dreamweaver-WebDAV-SCM1" redirect-carefully

    #
    # Allow server status reports generated by mod_status,
    # with the URL of http://servername/server-status
    # Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
    #
    #
    # SetHandler server-status
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Allow remote server configuration reports, with the URL of
    # http://servername/server-info (requires that mod_info.c be loaded).
    # Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
    #
    #
    # SetHandler server-info
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Proxy Server directives. Uncomment the following lines to
    # enable the proxy server:
    #
    #
    #ProxyRequests On
    #
    #
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Enable/disable the handling of HTTP/1.1 "Via:" headers.
    # ("Full" adds the server version; "Block" removes all outgoing Via:
    headers)
    # Set to one of: Off | On | Full | Block
    #
    #ProxyVia On

    #
    # To enable a cache of proxied content, uncomment the following lines.
    # See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_cache.html for more details.
    #
    #
    # CacheEnable disk /
    # CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy"
    #

    #

    #

    # End of proxy directives.

    ### Section 3: Virtual Hosts
    #
    # VirtualHost: If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your
    # machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them. Most configurations
    # use only name-based virtual hosts so the server doesn't need to worry
    about
    # IP addresses. This is indicated by the asterisks in the directives below.
    #
    # Please see the documentation at
    #
    # for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts.
    #
    # You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host
    # configuration.

    #
    # Use name-based virtual hosting.
    #
    #NameVirtualHost *:80
    #
    # NOTE: NameVirtualHost cannot be used without a port specifier
    # (e.g. :80) if mod_ssl is being used, due to the nature of the
    # SSL protocol.
    #

    #
    # VirtualHost example:
    # Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container.
    # The first VirtualHost section is used for requests without a known
    # server name.
    #
    #
    # ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com
    # DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example.com
    # ServerName dummy-host.example.com
    # ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
    # CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common
    #

    NameVirtualHost 72.10.121.110:80


    ServerName www.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /www/k12/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin /www/k12/cgi-bin

    AllowOverride ALL
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /www/ci/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin /www/ci/cgi-bin

    AllowOverride ALL
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.applepirobotics.org
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /home/applepirobotics/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.applepirobotics.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /home/applepirobotics/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all



    ssl.conf

    #
    # This is the Apache server configuration file providing SSL support.
    # It contains the configuration directives to instruct the server how to
    # serve pages over an https connection. For detailing information about
    these
    # directives see
    #
    # For the moment, see for this info.
    # The documents are still being prepared from material donated by the
    # modssl project.
    #
    # Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
    # what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure
    # consult the online docs. You have been warned.
    #

    LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so

    # Until documentation is completed, please check http://www.modssl.org/
    # for additional config examples and module docmentation. Directives
    # and features of mod_ssl are largely unchanged from the mod_ssl project
    # for Apache 1.3.

    #
    # When we also provide SSL we have to listen to the
    # standard HTTP port (see above) and to the HTTPS port
    #
    Listen 443

    #
    # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
    #
    # To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a
    DSO you
    # ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
    # CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common

    ##
    ## SSL Global Context
    ##
    ## All SSL configuration in this context applies both to
    ## the main server and all SSL-enabled virtual hosts.
    ##

    #
    # Some MIME-types for downloading Certificates and CRLs
    #
    AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt
    AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl .crl

    # Pass Phrase Dialog:
    # Configure the pass phrase gathering process.
    # The filtering dialog program (`builtin' is a internal
    # terminal dialog) has to provide the pass phrase on stdout.
    SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin

    # Inter-Process Session Cache:
    # Configure the SSL Session Cache: First the mechanism
    # to use and second the expiring timeout (in seconds).
    #SSLSessionCache none
    #SSLSessionCache shmht:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
    #SSLSessionCache shmcb:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
    SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache
    SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300

    # Semaphore:
    # Configure the path to the mutual exclusion semaphore the
    # SSL engine uses internally for inter-process synchronization.
    SSLMutex file:logs/ssl_mutex

    # Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG):
    # Configure one or more sources to seed the PRNG of the
    # SSL library. The seed data should be of good random quality.
    # WARNING! On some platforms /dev/random blocks if not enough entropy
    # is available. This means you then cannot use the /dev/random device
    # because it would lead to very long connection times (as long as
    # it requires to make more entropy available). But usually those
    # platforms additionally provide a /dev/urandom device which doesn't
    # block. So, if available, use this one instead. Read the mod_ssl User
    # Manual for more details.
    SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
    SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
    #SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random 512
    #SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 512
    #SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random 512
    #SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 512

    ##
    ## SSL Virtual Host Context
    ##
    NameVirtualHost 72.10.121.110:443



    # General setup for the virtual host
    DocumentRoot "/www/k12/wwws"
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /www/k12/cgi-sbin/
    ServerName wwws.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin drew@spamalot.com
    ErrorLog logs/error_log
    TransferLog logs/access_log

    # SSL Engine Switch:
    # Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
    SSLEngine on

    # SSL Cipher Suite:
    # List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.
    # See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.
    SSLCipherSuite
    ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSL v2:+EXP:+eNULL

    # Server Certificate:
    # Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate. If
    # the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a
    # pass phrase. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again. A test
    # certificate can be generated with `make certificate' under
    # built time. Keep in mind that if you've both a RSA and a DSA
    # certificate you can configure both in parallel (to also allow
    # the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
    #SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server-dsa.crt

    # Server Private Key:
    # If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this
    # directive to point at the key file. Keep in mind that if
    # you've both a RSA and a DSA private key you can configure
    # both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server.key
    #SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server-dsa.key

    # Server Certificate Chain:
    # Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
    # concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
    # certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
    # the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
    # when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
    # certificate for convinience.
    #SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/ca.crt

    # Certificate Authority (CA):
    # Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
    # certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
    # huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    # Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
    # to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    # Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt
    #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

    # Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
    # Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
    # authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
    # of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    # Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
    # to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    # Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crl
    #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

    # Client Authentication (Type):
    # Client certificate verification type and depth. Types are
    # none, optional, require and optional_no_ca. Depth is a
    # number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
    # issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
    #SSLVerifyClient require
    #SSLVerifyDepth 10

    # Access Control:
    # With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
    # on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
    # variable checks and other lookup directives. The syntax is a
    # mixture between C and Perl. See the mod_ssl documentation
    # for more details.
    #
    #SSLRequire ( %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
    # and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
    # and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
    # and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
    # and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20 ) \
    # or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
    #


    # SSL Engine Options:
    # Set various options for the SSL engine.
    # o FakeBasicAuth:
    # Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation. This means
    that
    # the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control. The
    # user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
    # Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in
    the user
    # file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
    # o ExportCertData:
    # This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
    # SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
    # server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
    # authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
    # into CGI scripts.
    # o StdEnvVars:
    # This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment
    variables.
    # Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
    # because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
    # useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
    # exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
    # o CompatEnvVars:
    # This exports obsolete environment variables for backward compatibility
    # to Apache-SSL 1.x, mod_ssl 2.0.x, Sioux 1.0 and Stronghold 2.x.
    Use this
    # to provide compatibility to existing CGI scripts.
    # o StrictRequire:
    # This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
    # under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
    # and no other module can change it.
    # o OptRenegotiate:
    # This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
    # directives are used in per-directory context.
    #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +CompatEnvVars +StrictRequire

    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars


    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars


    # SSL Protocol Adjustments:
    # The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
    # approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't
    wait for
    # the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
    # approach you can use one of the following variables:
    # o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
    # This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
    # SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received. This violates
    # the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
    # this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach
    where
    # mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
    # o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
    # This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
    # SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
    # alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
    # practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead
    browsers. Use
    # this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
    # works correctly.
    # Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
    # keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
    # keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
    # Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
    # their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
    # "force-response-1.0" for this.
    SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
    nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
    downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

    # Per-Server Logging:
    # The home of a custom SSL log file. Use this when you want a
    # compact non-error SSL logfile on a virtual host basis.
    CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \
    "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"



  3. Re: How to Configure Apache2 Virtual Host

    Ross wrote:
    > Hi there,
    > This is NOT a normal virtual host. Here is my scenario:
    >
    > Currently, I have a secure web server https://server1.company.com running on
    > Apache2 on Red Hat Linux. The port 80 is disabled. Only is port 443 open.
    > The Listen directive is commented out in the httpd.conf, and SSL is
    > configured under conf.d/ssl.conf. It's working well.
    >
    > Now, I want to create a non-secure virtual host called:
    > http://server2.company.com on the same machine.
    >
    > I tried both name-based virtual host and IP-based virtual host, and I tried
    > to add directives to httpd.conf:
    > Listen 1.1.1.1:443 #for server1
    > Listen 2.2.2.2:80 #for server2
    > and
    > NameVirtualHost 1.1.1.1:443
    > NameVirtualHost 2.2.2.2:80
    > and
    > related VirtualHost directives.
    >
    > But I can't get the server2 work, and I also get warning:
    > Init: (server1.company.com:443) You configured HTTP(80) on the standard
    > HTTPS(443) port!
    >
    > Any idea, or documents, or links would be appreciated.
    > Ross
    >
    >

    How about an example,

    httpd.conf

    #
    # This is the main Apache server configuration file. It contains the
    # configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
    # See for detailed information.
    # In particular, see
    #
    # for a discussion of each configuration directive.
    #
    #
    # Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
    # what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure
    # consult the online docs. You have been warned.
    #
    # The configuration directives are grouped into three basic sections:
    # 1. Directives that control the operation of the Apache server process
    as a
    # whole (the 'global environment').
    # 2. Directives that define the parameters of the 'main' or 'default'
    server,
    # which responds to requests that aren't handled by a virtual host.
    # These directives also provide default values for the settings
    # of all virtual hosts.
    # 3. Settings for virtual hosts, which allow Web requests to be sent to
    # different IP addresses or hostnames and have them handled by the
    # same Apache server process.
    #
    # Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
    # of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
    # server will use that explicit path. If the filenames do *not* begin
    # with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "logs/foo.log"
    # with ServerRoot set to "/etc/httpd" will be interpreted by the
    # server as "/etc/httpd/logs/foo.log".
    #

    ### Section 1: Global Environment
    #
    # The directives in this section affect the overall operation of Apache,
    # such as the number of concurrent requests it can handle or where it
    # can find its configuration files.
    #

    #
    # Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents
    # we are running. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites
    # finding out what major optional modules you are running
    ServerTokens OS

    #
    # ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
    # configuration, error, and log files are kept.
    #
    # NOTE! If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
    # mounted filesystem then please read the LockFile documentation
    # (available at
    );
    # you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
    #
    # Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
    #
    ServerRoot "/etc/httpd"

    #
    # PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
    # identification number when it starts.
    #
    PidFile run/httpd.pid

    #
    # Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
    #
    Timeout 120

    #
    # KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
    # one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
    #
    KeepAlive On

    #
    # MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
    # during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
    # We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
    #
    MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

    #
    # KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
    # same client on the same connection.
    #
    KeepAliveTimeout 15

    ##
    ## Server-Pool Size Regulation (MPM specific)
    ##

    # prefork MPM
    # StartServers: number of server processes to start
    # MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare
    # MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare
    # ServerLimit: maximum value for MaxClients for the lifetime of the server
    # MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start
    # MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

    StartServers 40
    MinSpareServers 20
    MaxSpareServers 60
    ServerLimit 100
    MaxClients 100
    MaxRequestsPerChild 4000


    # worker MPM
    # StartServers: initial number of server processes to start
    # MaxClients: maximum number of simultaneous client connections
    # MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare
    # MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare
    # ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process
    # MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

    StartServers 20
    MaxClients 150
    MinSpareThreads 25
    MaxSpareThreads 75
    ThreadsPerChild 25
    MaxRequestsPerChild 150


    #
    # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
    # ports, in addition to the default. See also the
    # directive.
    #
    # Change this to Listen on specific IP addresses as shown below to
    # prevent Apache from glomming onto all bound IP addresses (0.0.0.0)
    #
    #Listen 12.34.56.78:80
    Listen 80

    #
    # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
    #
    # To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a
    DSO you
    # have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
    # directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
    # Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
    # to be loaded here.
    #
    # Example:
    # LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
    #
    LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.so
    LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.so
    LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.so
    LoadModule authn_alias_module modules/mod_authn_alias.so
    LoadModule authn_anon_module modules/mod_authn_anon.so
    LoadModule authn_dbm_module modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
    LoadModule authn_default_module modules/mod_authn_default.so
    LoadModule authz_host_module modules/mod_authz_host.so
    LoadModule authz_user_module modules/mod_authz_user.so
    LoadModule authz_owner_module modules/mod_authz_owner.so
    LoadModule authz_groupfile_module modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
    LoadModule authz_dbm_module modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
    LoadModule authz_default_module modules/mod_authz_default.so
    LoadModule ldap_module modules/mod_ldap.so
    LoadModule authnz_ldap_module modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
    LoadModule include_module modules/mod_include.so
    LoadModule log_config_module modules/mod_log_config.so
    LoadModule logio_module modules/mod_logio.so
    LoadModule env_module modules/mod_env.so
    LoadModule ext_filter_module modules/mod_ext_filter.so
    LoadModule mime_magic_module modules/mod_mime_magic.so
    LoadModule expires_module modules/mod_expires.so
    LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so
    LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_headers.so
    LoadModule usertrack_module modules/mod_usertrack.so
    LoadModule setenvif_module modules/mod_setenvif.so
    LoadModule mime_module modules/mod_mime.so
    #LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so
    #LoadModule status_module modules/mod_status.so
    LoadModule autoindex_module modules/mod_autoindex.so
    #LoadModule info_module modules/mod_info.so
    #LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so
    LoadModule vhost_alias_module modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
    LoadModule negotiation_module modules/mod_negotiation.so
    LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so
    LoadModule actions_module modules/mod_actions.so
    LoadModule speling_module modules/mod_speling.so
    LoadModule userdir_module modules/mod_userdir.so
    LoadModule alias_module modules/mod_alias.so
    LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so
    #LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
    #LoadModule proxy_balancer_module modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
    #LoadModule proxy_ftp_module modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
    #LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/mod_proxy_http.so
    #LoadModule proxy_connect_module modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
    LoadModule cache_module modules/mod_cache.so
    LoadModule suexec_module modules/mod_suexec.so
    LoadModule disk_cache_module modules/mod_disk_cache.so
    LoadModule file_cache_module modules/mod_file_cache.so
    LoadModule mem_cache_module modules/mod_mem_cache.so
    LoadModule cgi_module modules/mod_cgi.so

    #
    # The following modules are not loaded by default:
    #
    #LoadModule cern_meta_module modules/mod_cern_meta.so
    #LoadModule asis_module modules/mod_asis.so

    #
    # Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.d".
    #
    Include conf.d/*.conf

    #
    # ExtendedStatus controls whether Apache will generate "full" status
    # information (ExtendedStatus On) or just basic information (ExtendedStatus
    # Off) when the "server-status" handler is called. The default is Off.
    #
    #ExtendedStatus On

    #
    # If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
    # httpd as root initially and it will switch.
    #
    # User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
    # . On SCO (ODT 3) use "User nouser" and "Group nogroup".
    # . On HPUX you may not be able to use shared memory as nobody, and the
    # suggested workaround is to create a user www and use that user.
    # NOTE that some kernels refuse to setgid(Group) or semctl(IPC_SET)
    # when the value of (unsigned)Group is above 60000;
    # don't use Group #-1 on these systems!
    #
    User apache
    Group apache

    ### Section 2: 'Main' server configuration
    #
    # The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
    # server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
    # definition. These values also provide defaults for
    # any containers you may define later in the file.
    #
    # All of these directives may appear inside containers,
    # in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
    # virtual host being defined.
    #

    #
    # ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
    # e-mailed. This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
    # as error documents. e.g. admin@your-domain.com
    #
    ServerAdmin drew@spamalot.com

    #
    # ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify
    itself.
    # This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
    # it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
    #
    # If this is not set to valid DNS name for your host, server-generated
    # redirections will not work. See also the UseCanonicalName directive.
    #
    # If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address
    here.
    # You will have to access it by its address anyway, and this will make
    # redirections work in a sensible way.
    #
    ServerName stats.spamalot.com

    #
    # UseCanonicalName: Determines how Apache constructs self-referencing
    # URLs and the SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT variables.
    # When set "Off", Apache will use the Hostname and Port supplied
    # by the client. When set "On", Apache will use the value of the
    # ServerName directive.
    #
    UseCanonicalName Off

    #
    # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
    # documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
    # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
    #
    DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"

    #
    # Each directory to which Apache has access can be configured with respect
    # to which services and features are allowed and/or disabled in that
    # directory (and its subdirectories).
    #
    # First, we configure the "default" to be a very restrictive set of
    # features.
    #

    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None


    #
    # Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
    # particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
    # you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
    # below.
    #

    #
    # This should be changed to whatever you set DocumentRoot to.
    #


    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    # Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important. Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    # Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride None

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all



    #
    # UserDir: The name of the directory that is appended onto a user's home
    # directory if a ~user request is received.
    #
    # The path to the end user account 'public_html' directory must be
    # accessible to the webserver userid. This usually means that ~userid
    # must have permissions of 711, ~userid/public_html must have permissions
    # of 755, and documents contained therein must be world-readable.
    # Otherwise, the client will only receive a "403 Forbidden" message.
    #
    # See also: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html#forbidden
    #

    #
    # UserDir is disabled by default since it can confirm the presence
    # of a username on the system (depending on home directory
    # permissions).
    #
    #UserDir enable

    #
    # To enable requests to /~user/ to serve the user's public_html
    # directory, remove the "UserDir disable" line above, and uncomment
    # the following line instead:
    #
    UserDir www



    #
    # Control access to UserDir directories. The following is an example
    # for a site where these directories are restricted to read-only.
    #

    AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec

    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all



    #
    # DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
    # is requested.
    #
    # The index.html.var file (a type-map) is used to deliver content-
    # negotiated documents. The MultiViews Option can be used for the
    # same purpose, but it is much slower.
    #
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.html.var index.htm index.shtml index.php
    index.php4 index.php3 index.phtml index.cgi index

    #
    # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
    # for additional configuration directives. See also the AllowOverride
    # directive.
    #
    AccessFileName .htaccess

    #
    # The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
    # viewed by Web clients.
    #

    Order allow,deny
    Deny from all


    #
    # TypesConfig describes where the mime.types file (or equivalent) is
    # to be found.
    #
    TypesConfig /etc/mime.types

    #
    # DefaultType is the default MIME type the server will use for a document
    # if it cannot otherwise determine one, such as from filename extensions.
    # If your server contains mostly text or HTML documents, "text/plain" is
    # a good value. If most of your content is binary, such as applications
    # or images, you may want to use "application/octet-stream" instead to
    # keep browsers from trying to display binary files as though they are
    # text.
    #
    DefaultType text/plain

    #
    # The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
    # contents of the file itself to determine its type. The MIMEMagicFile
    # directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
    #

    # MIMEMagicFile /usr/share/magic.mime
    MIMEMagicFile conf/magic


    #
    # HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
    # e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
    # The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
    # had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
    # each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
    # nameserver.
    #
    HostnameLookups Off

    #
    # EnableMMAP: Control whether memory-mapping is used to deliver
    # files (assuming that the underlying OS supports it).
    # The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
    # filesystems. On some systems, turning it off (regardless of
    # filesystem) can improve performance; for details, please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod...tml#enablemmap
    #
    #EnableMMAP off

    #
    # EnableSendfile: Control whether the sendfile kernel support is
    # used to deliver files (assuming that the OS supports it).
    # The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
    # filesystems. Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod...enablesendfile
    #
    #EnableSendfile off

    #
    # ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
    # If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a
    # container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
    # logged here. If you *do* define an error logfile for a
    # container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
    #
    ErrorLog logs/error_log

    #
    # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
    # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
    # alert, emerg.
    #
    LogLevel warn

    #
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    #
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\""
    combined
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
    LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
    LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

    # "combinedio" includes actual counts of actual bytes received (%I) and
    sent (%O); this
    # requires the mod_logio module to be loaded.
    #LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"
    %I %O" combinedio

    #
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a
    # container, they will be logged here. Contrariwise, if you *do*
    # define per- access logfiles, transactions will be
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    #
    #CustomLog logs/access_log common

    #
    # If you would like to have separate agent and referer logfiles, uncomment
    # the following directives.
    #
    #CustomLog logs/referer_log referer
    #CustomLog logs/agent_log agent

    #
    # For a single logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    # (Combined Logfile Format), use the following directive:
    #
    CustomLog logs/access_log combined

    #
    # Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
    # name to server-generated pages (internal error documents, FTP directory
    # listings, mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated
    # documents or custom error documents).
    # Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
    # Set to one of: On | Off | EMail
    #
    ServerSignature off

    #
    # Aliases: Add here as many aliases as you need (with no limit). The
    format is
    # Alias fakename realname
    #
    # Note that if you include a trailing / on fakename then the server will
    # require it to be present in the URL. So "/icons" isn't aliased in this
    # example, only "/icons/". If the fakename is slash-terminated, then the
    # realname must also be slash terminated, and if the fakename omits the
    # trailing slash, the realname must also omit it.
    #
    # We include the /icons/ alias for FancyIndexed directory listings. If you
    # do not use FancyIndexing, you may comment this out.
    #
    Alias /icons/ "/var/www/icons/"


    Options Indexes MultiViews
    AllowOverride None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    #
    # WebDAV module configuration section.
    #

    # Location of the WebDAV lock database.
    DAVLockDB /var/lib/dav/lockdb


    #
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts.
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    # documents in the realname directory are treated as applications and
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the
    client.
    # The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias directives as to
    # Alias.
    #
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/var/www/cgi-bin/"

    #
    # "/var/www/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
    # CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
    #

    AllowOverride None
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all


    #
    # Redirect allows you to tell clients about documents which used to exist in
    # your server's namespace, but do not anymore. This allows you to tell the
    # clients where to look for the relocated document.
    # Example:
    # Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

    #
    # Directives controlling the display of server-generated directory listings.
    #

    #
    # IndexOptions: Controls the appearance of server-generated directory
    # listings.
    #
    IndexOptions FancyIndexing VersionSort NameWidth=* HTMLTable

    #
    # AddIcon* directives tell the server which icon to show for different
    # files or filename extensions. These are only displayed for
    # FancyIndexed directories.
    #
    AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip

    AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
    AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
    AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
    AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

    AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe
    AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx
    AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar
    AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
    AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip
    AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
    AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
    AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt
    AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c
    AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py
    AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for
    AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi
    AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
    AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
    AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex
    AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core

    AddIcon /icons/back.gif ..
    AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README
    AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^
    AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^

    #
    # DefaultIcon is which icon to show for files which do not have an icon
    # explicitly set.
    #
    DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif

    #
    # AddDescription allows you to place a short description after a file in
    # server-generated indexes. These are only displayed for FancyIndexed
    # directories.
    # Format: AddDescription "description" filename
    #
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed document" .gz
    #AddDescription "tar archive" .tar
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz

    #
    # ReadmeName is the name of the README file the server will look for by
    # default, and append to directory listings.
    #
    # HeaderName is the name of a file which should be prepended to
    # directory indexes.
    ReadmeName README.html
    HeaderName HEADER.html

    #
    # IndexIgnore is a set of filenames which directory indexing should ignore
    # and not include in the listing. Shell-style wildcarding is permitted.
    #
    IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t

    #
    # DefaultLanguage and AddLanguage allows you to specify the language of
    # a document. You can then use content negotiation to give a browser a
    # file in a language the user can understand.
    #
    # Specify a default language. This means that all data
    # going out without a specific language tag (see below) will
    # be marked with this one. You probably do NOT want to set
    # this unless you are sure it is correct for all cases.
    #
    # * It is generally better to not mark a page as
    # * being a certain language than marking it with the wrong
    # * language!
    #
    # DefaultLanguage nl
    #
    # Note 1: The suffix does not have to be the same as the language
    # keyword --- those with documents in Polish (whose net-standard
    # language code is pl) may wish to use "AddLanguage pl .po" to
    # avoid the ambiguity with the common suffix for perl scripts.
    #
    # Note 2: The example entries below illustrate that in some cases
    # the two character 'Language' abbreviation is not identical to
    # the two character 'Country' code for its country,
    # E.g. 'Danmark/dk' versus 'Danish/da'.
    #
    # Note 3: In the case of 'ltz' we violate the RFC by using a three char
    # specifier. There is 'work in progress' to fix this and get
    # the reference data for rfc1766 cleaned up.
    #
    # Catalan (ca) - Croatian (hr) - Czech (cs) - Danish (da) - Dutch (nl)
    # English (en) - Esperanto (eo) - Estonian (et) - French (fr) - German (de)
    # Greek-Modern (el) - Hebrew (he) - Italian (it) - Japanese (ja)
    # Korean (ko) - Luxembourgeois* (ltz) - Norwegian Nynorsk (nn)
    # Norwegian (no) - Polish (pl) - Portugese (pt)
    # Brazilian Portuguese (pt-BR) - Russian (ru) - Swedish (sv)
    # Simplified Chinese (zh-CN) - Spanish (es) - Traditional Chinese (zh-TW)
    #
    AddLanguage ca .ca
    AddLanguage cs .cz .cs
    AddLanguage da .dk
    AddLanguage de .de
    AddLanguage el .el
    AddLanguage en .en
    AddLanguage eo .eo
    AddLanguage es .es
    AddLanguage et .et
    AddLanguage fr .fr
    AddLanguage he .he
    AddLanguage hr .hr
    AddLanguage it .it
    AddLanguage ja .ja
    AddLanguage ko .ko
    AddLanguage ltz .ltz
    AddLanguage nl .nl
    AddLanguage nn .nn
    AddLanguage no .no
    AddLanguage pl .po
    AddLanguage pt .pt
    AddLanguage pt-BR .pt-br
    AddLanguage ru .ru
    AddLanguage sv .sv
    AddLanguage zh-CN .zh-cn
    AddLanguage zh-TW .zh-tw

    #
    # LanguagePriority allows you to give precedence to some languages
    # in case of a tie during content negotiation.
    #
    # Just list the languages in decreasing order of preference. We have
    # more or less alphabetized them here. You probably want to change this.
    #
    LanguagePriority en ca cs da de el eo es et fr he hr it ja ko ltz nl nn
    no pl pt pt-BR ru sv zh-CN zh-TW

    #
    # ForceLanguagePriority allows you to serve a result page rather than
    # MULTIPLE CHOICES (Prefer) [in case of a tie] or NOT ACCEPTABLE (Fallback)
    # [in case no accepted languages matched the available variants]
    #
    ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

    #
    # Specify a default charset for all content served; this enables
    # interpretation of all content as UTF-8 by default. To use the
    # default browser choice (ISO-8859-1), or to allow the META tags
    # in HTML content to override this choice, comment out this
    # directive:
    #
    AddDefaultCharset UTF-8

    #
    # AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
    # file mime.types for specific file types.
    #
    #AddType application/x-tar .tgz

    #
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    # Despite the name similarity, the following Add* directives have nothing
    # to do with the FancyIndexing customization directives above.
    #
    #AddEncoding x-compress .Z
    #AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz

    # If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
    # probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
    #
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

    #
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    # or added with the Action directive (see below)
    #
    # To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
    # (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

    #
    # For files that include their own HTTP headers:
    #
    #AddHandler send-as-is asis

    #
    # For type maps (negotiated resources):
    # (This is enabled by default to allow the Apache "It Worked" page
    # to be distributed in multiple languages.)
    #
    AddHandler type-map var

    #
    # Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
    #
    # To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
    # (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    AddType text/html .shtml
    AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml

    #
    # Action lets you define media types that will execute a script whenever
    # a matching file is called. This eliminates the need for repeated URL
    # pathnames for oft-used CGI file processors.
    # Format: Action media/type /cgi-script/location
    # Format: Action handler-name /cgi-script/location
    #

    #
    # Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
    # 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
    #
    # Some examples:
    #ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
    #ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
    #ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
    #ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
    #

    #
    # Putting this all together, we can internationalize error responses.
    #
    # We use Alias to redirect any /error/HTTP_.html.var response to
    # our collection of by-error message multi-language collections. We use
    # includes to substitute the appropriate text.
    #
    # You can modify the messages' appearance without changing any of the
    # default HTTP_.html.var files by adding the line:
    #
    # Alias /error/include/ "/your/include/path/"
    #
    # which allows you to create your own set of files by starting with the
    # /var/www/error/include/ files and
    # copying them to /your/include/path/, even on a per-VirtualHost basis.
    #

    Alias /error/ "/var/www/error/"




    AllowOverride None
    Options IncludesNoExec
    AddOutputFilter Includes html
    AddHandler type-map var
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
    LanguagePriority en es de fr
    ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback


    ErrorDocument 400 /error/HTTP_BAD_REQUEST.html.var
    ErrorDocument 401 /error/HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 403 /error/HTTP_FORBIDDEN.html.var
    ErrorDocument 404 /error/HTTP_NOT_FOUND.html.var
    ErrorDocument 405 /error/HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 408 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_TIME_OUT.html.var
    ErrorDocument 410 /error/HTTP_GONE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 411 /error/HTTP_LENGTH_REQUIRED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 412 /error/HTTP_PRECONDITION_FAILED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 413 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 414 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 415 /error/HTTP_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 500 /error/HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.html.var
    ErrorDocument 501 /error/HTTP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED.html.var
    ErrorDocument 502 /error/HTTP_BAD_GATEWAY.html.var
    ErrorDocument 503 /error/HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.html.var
    ErrorDocument 506 /error/HTTP_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES.html.var




    #
    # The following directives modify normal HTTP response behavior to
    # handle known problems with browser implementations.
    #
    BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
    BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "Java/1\.0" force-response-1.0
    BrowserMatch "JDK/1\.0" force-response-1.0

    #
    # The following directive disables redirects on non-GET requests for
    # a directory that does not include the trailing slash. This fixes a
    # problem with Microsoft WebFolders which does not appropriately handle
    # redirects for folders with DAV methods.
    # Same deal with Apple's DAV filesystem and Gnome VFS support for DAV.
    #
    BrowserMatch "Microsoft Data Access Internet Publishing Provider"
    redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "MS FrontPage" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^WebDrive" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^WebDAVFS/1.[0123]" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^gnome-vfs/1.0" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^XML Spy" redirect-carefully
    BrowserMatch "^Dreamweaver-WebDAV-SCM1" redirect-carefully

    #
    # Allow server status reports generated by mod_status,
    # with the URL of http://servername/server-status
    # Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
    #
    #
    # SetHandler server-status
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Allow remote server configuration reports, with the URL of
    # http://servername/server-info (requires that mod_info.c be loaded).
    # Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
    #
    #
    # SetHandler server-info
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Proxy Server directives. Uncomment the following lines to
    # enable the proxy server:
    #
    #
    #ProxyRequests On
    #
    #
    # Order deny,allow
    # Deny from all
    # Allow from .example.com
    #


    #
    # Enable/disable the handling of HTTP/1.1 "Via:" headers.
    # ("Full" adds the server version; "Block" removes all outgoing Via:
    headers)
    # Set to one of: Off | On | Full | Block
    #
    #ProxyVia On

    #
    # To enable a cache of proxied content, uncomment the following lines.
    # See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_cache.html for more details.
    #
    #
    # CacheEnable disk /
    # CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy"
    #

    #

    #

    # End of proxy directives.

    ### Section 3: Virtual Hosts
    #
    # VirtualHost: If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your
    # machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them. Most configurations
    # use only name-based virtual hosts so the server doesn't need to worry
    about
    # IP addresses. This is indicated by the asterisks in the directives below.
    #
    # Please see the documentation at
    #
    # for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts.
    #
    # You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host
    # configuration.

    #
    # Use name-based virtual hosting.
    #
    #NameVirtualHost *:80
    #
    # NOTE: NameVirtualHost cannot be used without a port specifier
    # (e.g. :80) if mod_ssl is being used, due to the nature of the
    # SSL protocol.
    #

    #
    # VirtualHost example:
    # Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container.
    # The first VirtualHost section is used for requests without a known
    # server name.
    #
    #
    # ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com
    # DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example.com
    # ServerName dummy-host.example.com
    # ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
    # CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common
    #

    NameVirtualHost 72.10.121.110:80


    ServerName www.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /www/k12/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin /www/k12/cgi-bin

    AllowOverride ALL
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /www/ci/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin /www/ci/cgi-bin

    AllowOverride ALL
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.applepirobotics.org
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /home/applepirobotics/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all




    ServerName www.applepirobotics.com
    ServerAdmin scrantonb@spamalot.com
    DocumentRoot /home/applepirobotics/www

    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews Includes
    AllowOverride ALL
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all



    ssl.conf

    #
    # This is the Apache server configuration file providing SSL support.
    # It contains the configuration directives to instruct the server how to
    # serve pages over an https connection. For detailing information about
    these
    # directives see
    #
    # For the moment, see for this info.
    # The documents are still being prepared from material donated by the
    # modssl project.
    #
    # Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
    # what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure
    # consult the online docs. You have been warned.
    #

    LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so

    # Until documentation is completed, please check http://www.modssl.org/
    # for additional config examples and module docmentation. Directives
    # and features of mod_ssl are largely unchanged from the mod_ssl project
    # for Apache 1.3.

    #
    # When we also provide SSL we have to listen to the
    # standard HTTP port (see above) and to the HTTPS port
    #
    Listen 443

    #
    # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
    #
    # To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a
    DSO you
    # ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
    # CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common

    ##
    ## SSL Global Context
    ##
    ## All SSL configuration in this context applies both to
    ## the main server and all SSL-enabled virtual hosts.
    ##

    #
    # Some MIME-types for downloading Certificates and CRLs
    #
    AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt
    AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl .crl

    # Pass Phrase Dialog:
    # Configure the pass phrase gathering process.
    # The filtering dialog program (`builtin' is a internal
    # terminal dialog) has to provide the pass phrase on stdout.
    SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin

    # Inter-Process Session Cache:
    # Configure the SSL Session Cache: First the mechanism
    # to use and second the expiring timeout (in seconds).
    #SSLSessionCache none
    #SSLSessionCache shmht:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
    #SSLSessionCache shmcb:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
    SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache
    SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300

    # Semaphore:
    # Configure the path to the mutual exclusion semaphore the
    # SSL engine uses internally for inter-process synchronization.
    SSLMutex file:logs/ssl_mutex

    # Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG):
    # Configure one or more sources to seed the PRNG of the
    # SSL library. The seed data should be of good random quality.
    # WARNING! On some platforms /dev/random blocks if not enough entropy
    # is available. This means you then cannot use the /dev/random device
    # because it would lead to very long connection times (as long as
    # it requires to make more entropy available). But usually those
    # platforms additionally provide a /dev/urandom device which doesn't
    # block. So, if available, use this one instead. Read the mod_ssl User
    # Manual for more details.
    SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
    SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
    #SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random 512
    #SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 512
    #SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random 512
    #SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 512

    ##
    ## SSL Virtual Host Context
    ##
    NameVirtualHost 72.10.121.110:443



    # General setup for the virtual host
    DocumentRoot "/www/k12/wwws"
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /www/k12/cgi-sbin/
    ServerName wwws.spamalot.com
    ServerAdmin drew@spamalot.com
    ErrorLog logs/error_log
    TransferLog logs/access_log

    # SSL Engine Switch:
    # Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
    SSLEngine on

    # SSL Cipher Suite:
    # List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.
    # See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.
    SSLCipherSuite
    ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSL v2:+EXP:+eNULL

    # Server Certificate:
    # Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate. If
    # the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a
    # pass phrase. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again. A test
    # certificate can be generated with `make certificate' under
    # built time. Keep in mind that if you've both a RSA and a DSA
    # certificate you can configure both in parallel (to also allow
    # the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
    #SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server-dsa.crt

    # Server Private Key:
    # If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this
    # directive to point at the key file. Keep in mind that if
    # you've both a RSA and a DSA private key you can configure
    # both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server.key
    #SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server-dsa.key

    # Server Certificate Chain:
    # Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
    # concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
    # certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
    # the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
    # when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
    # certificate for convinience.
    #SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/ca.crt

    # Certificate Authority (CA):
    # Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
    # certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
    # huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    # Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
    # to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    # Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt
    #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

    # Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
    # Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
    # authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
    # of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    # Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
    # to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    # Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crl
    #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

    # Client Authentication (Type):
    # Client certificate verification type and depth. Types are
    # none, optional, require and optional_no_ca. Depth is a
    # number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
    # issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
    #SSLVerifyClient require
    #SSLVerifyDepth 10

    # Access Control:
    # With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
    # on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
    # variable checks and other lookup directives. The syntax is a
    # mixture between C and Perl. See the mod_ssl documentation
    # for more details.
    #
    #SSLRequire ( %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
    # and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
    # and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
    # and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
    # and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20 ) \
    # or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
    #


    # SSL Engine Options:
    # Set various options for the SSL engine.
    # o FakeBasicAuth:
    # Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation. This means
    that
    # the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control. The
    # user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
    # Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in
    the user
    # file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
    # o ExportCertData:
    # This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
    # SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
    # server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
    # authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
    # into CGI scripts.
    # o StdEnvVars:
    # This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment
    variables.
    # Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
    # because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
    # useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
    # exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
    # o CompatEnvVars:
    # This exports obsolete environment variables for backward compatibility
    # to Apache-SSL 1.x, mod_ssl 2.0.x, Sioux 1.0 and Stronghold 2.x.
    Use this
    # to provide compatibility to existing CGI scripts.
    # o StrictRequire:
    # This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
    # under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
    # and no other module can change it.
    # o OptRenegotiate:
    # This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
    # directives are used in per-directory context.
    #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +CompatEnvVars +StrictRequire

    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars


    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars


    # SSL Protocol Adjustments:
    # The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
    # approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't
    wait for
    # the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
    # approach you can use one of the following variables:
    # o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
    # This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
    # SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received. This violates
    # the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
    # this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach
    where
    # mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
    # o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
    # This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
    # SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
    # alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
    # practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead
    browsers. Use
    # this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
    # works correctly.
    # Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
    # keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
    # keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
    # Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
    # their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
    # "force-response-1.0" for this.
    SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
    nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
    downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

    # Per-Server Logging:
    # The home of a custom SSL log file. Use this when you want a
    # compact non-error SSL logfile on a virtual host basis.
    CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \
    "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"



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