Mandriva fail to start - Mandriva

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  1. Mandriva fail to start

    hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    Then it just hangs any help please
    Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    I'm a newbee to linux

  2. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:
    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux


    When did you install 2008.0? If not long ago, my first
    recommendation would be to install Mandriva 2008.1 and then update
    the system. If your machine is dual-boot, use the other OS to get
    the DVD for the new install. Otherwise, use a different machine
    to download and burn the DVD (or CDs) and boot up and install from that.

    If a new install is not practical, we need to know if you system has
    ever worked properly, what hardware it has, exactly which Mandriva OS
    it is running (laptop, desktop, etc) and what (if any) problems you
    have had before the machine quit booting. Power surge or improper
    shutdown that may have corrupted the system software?

    You might also try booting with you 2008.0 install DVD or CD,
    selecting rescue mode, and running
    fsck -y /dev/whateverpartitionusrison

    Cheers!

    jim b.

    --
    UNIX is not user unfriendly; it merely
    expects users to be computer-friendly.

  3. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:

    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux



    Yep we need more infos...

    Did it ever work? Or did you just play around with root priviledges and bad
    windows manners?



  4. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:
    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux

    it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same place

  5. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    On Monday 11 August 2008 05:24, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/

    > Chris Taylor wrote:
    >
    >> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >> Then it just hangs any help please
    >> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >> I'm a newbee to linux

    > it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    > got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    > I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same place


    Important question, considering that this is the Mandriva Free release, did
    you check the /md5sums/ on the downloaded /.iso/ file against the ones on
    the mirror from which you downloaded it? And if so, did you burn the image
    to a quality medium and at low speed?

    Sometimes during the download, a few bits here and there get corrupted.
    This is why you have to check the /md5sums./ Similarly, burning a CD/DVD
    too fast may also result in data corruption - the slower the burn, the
    deeper the bits will be burned in your CD/DVD disk - and cheap media may
    also ruin it for you.

    The above all said, you haven't mentioned what hardware you have in your
    system. Motherboard, chipset and CPU may all play part in any difficulties
    you may encounter. Try booting with any of the following as kernel
    parameters...

    noapic
    nolapic
    acpi=off

    Try them separately and in combinations. If you find that a particular
    combination works and you're using LILO as a bootloader, edit your
    */etc/lilo.conf* with a plain text editor and add the working combination
    to the kernel's append line. Then run */sbin/lilo* from the command prompt
    (as root) to write the changes to your master boot record.

    If you're using GRUB, then all you have to do is add the working combination
    as kernel parameters to the kernel's line in */boot/grub/menu.lst.*

    Hope this helps... ;-)

    --
    *Aragorn*
    (registered GNU/Linux user #223157)

  6. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Aragorn wrote:
    > On Monday 11 August 2008 05:24, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    > in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/
    >
    >> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>
    >>> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >>> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >>> Then it just hangs any help please
    >>> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >>> I'm a newbee to linux

    >> it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    >> got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    >> I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same place

    >
    > Important question, considering that this is the Mandriva Free release, did
    > you check the /md5sums/ on the downloaded /.iso/ file against the ones on
    > the mirror from which you downloaded it? And if so, did you burn the image
    > to a quality medium and at low speed?


    I got the install from a disk of a mag.
    The install worked well and the system worked well for a two or three
    months, So I was not thinking of a media problem

    >
    > Sometimes during the download, a few bits here and there get corrupted.
    > This is why you have to check the /md5sums./ Similarly, burning a CD/DVD
    > too fast may also result in data corruption - the slower the burn, the
    > deeper the bits will be burned in your CD/DVD disk - and cheap media may
    > also ruin it for you.
    >
    > The above all said, you haven't mentioned what hardware you have in your
    > system. Motherboard, chipset and CPU may all play part in any difficulties
    > you may encounter. Try booting with any of the following as kernel
    > parameters...
    >
    > noapic
    > nolapic
    > acpi=off


    Simple question how do I do the above
    I believe it is LILO as the bootloader

    >
    > Try them separately and in combinations. If you find that a particular
    > combination works and you're using LILO as a bootloader, edit your
    > */etc/lilo.conf* with a plain text editor and add the working combination
    > to the kernel's append line. Then run */sbin/lilo* from the command prompt
    > (as root) to write the changes to your master boot record.
    >
    > If you're using GRUB, then all you have to do is add the working combination
    > as kernel parameters to the kernel's line in */boot/grub/menu.lst.*
    >
    > Hope this helps... ;-)
    >


  7. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:

    > Chris Taylor wrote:
    >> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >> Then it just hangs any help please
    >> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >> I'm a newbee to linux

    > it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    > got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    > I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same place


    It takes about three minutes waiting time and then it starts, this problem
    has been discussed about one or two week ago. I had the same problem and it
    got resolved by running chckconfig as root for messagebus and haldaemon if
    my memory serves me well.

    Herman Viaene
    --
    Veel mensen danken hun goed geweten aan hun slecht geheugen. (G. Bomans)

    Lots of people owe their good conscience to their bad memory (G. Bomans)

  8. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    On Monday 11 August 2008 09:08, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/

    > Aragorn wrote:
    >
    >> On Monday 11 August 2008 05:24, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor*
    >> wrote in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/
    >>
    >>> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>>
    >>>> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >>>> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >>>> Then it just hangs any help please
    >>>> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >>>> I'm a newbee to linux
    >>>
    >>> it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    >>> got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    >>> I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same
    >>> place

    >>
    >> [...].
    >>
    >> The above all said, you haven't mentioned what hardware you have in your
    >> system. Motherboard, chipset and CPU may all play part in any
    >> difficulties
    >> you may encounter. Try booting with any of the following as kernel
    >> parameters...
    >>
    >> noapic
    >> nolapic
    >> acpi=off

    >
    > Simple question how do I do the above
    > I believe it is LILO as the bootloader


    Just press the escape key while in the LILO menu and then type the name of
    the selection, followed by a space and then the parameters, all separated
    by spaces.

    Hope this helps... ;-)

    --
    *Aragorn*
    (registered GNU/Linux user #223157)

  9. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    herman.viaene@thuis.be wrote:
    > Chris Taylor wrote:
    >
    >> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >>> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >>> Then it just hangs any help please
    >>> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >>> I'm a newbee to linux

    >> it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    >> got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    >> I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same place

    >
    > It takes about three minutes waiting time and then it starts, this problem
    > has been discussed about one or two week ago. I had the same problem and it
    > got resolved by running chckconfig as root for messagebus and haldaemon if
    > my memory serves me well.
    >
    > Herman Viaene

    Sorry if this has been discussed before but it is a new problem to me.

    "it got resolved by running chckconfig as root for messagebus and haldaemon"
    Sorry I don't understand what your telling me to do?

  10. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:
    > herman.viaene@thuis.be wrote:
    >> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>
    >>> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>>> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >>>> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >>>> Then it just hangs any help please
    >>>> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >>>> I'm a newbee to linux
    >>> it was working just fine on my desktop I just came in yesterday and only
    >>> got to the HAL DEAMON part of startup. duel boots with XP pro
    >>> I did remove the hdd and then reinstall in computer sane drive same
    >>> place

    >>
    >> It takes about three minutes waiting time and then it starts, this
    >> problem
    >> has been discussed about one or two week ago. I had the same problem
    >> and it
    >> got resolved by running chckconfig as root for messagebus and
    >> haldaemon if
    >> my memory serves me well.
    >>
    >> Herman Viaene

    > Sorry if this has been discussed before but it is a new problem to me.
    >
    > "it got resolved by running chckconfig as root for messagebus and
    > haldaemon"
    > Sorry I don't understand what your telling me to do?


    Just pressed Esc key when in the boot menu and go the following info
    hoping this helps "GNU GRUB 0.97"

  11. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:

    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux


    Hi

    If you are a newbee, the faster and easy solution is to get the install DVD
    and reinstall. It will take 20 to 40 mn. Format the root partition to have
    a clean install (the installer will ask you for it) but DON'T format your
    home partition. That's it.

    With bigger experience in Linux, you will be able to know what happened and
    you will be able to fix it in a more professional way.

    (As beginners, most of use had to format the root partition at least one
    time).

  12. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Amrein-Marie Christophe wrote:
    > Chris Taylor wrote:
    >
    >> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >> Then it just hangs any help please
    >> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >> I'm a newbee to linux

    >
    > Hi
    >
    > If you are a newbee, the faster and easy solution is to get the install DVD
    > and reinstall. It will take 20 to 40 mn. Format the root partition to have
    > a clean install (the installer will ask you for it) but DON'T format your
    > home partition. That's it.
    >
    > With bigger experience in Linux, you will be able to know what happened and
    > you will be able to fix it in a more professional way.
    >
    > (As beginners, most of use had to format the root partition at least one
    > time).

    This means I will loose downloaded software and data

  13. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor writes:

    >Amrein-Marie Christophe wrote:
    >> Chris Taylor wrote:
    >>
    >>> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >>> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >>> Then it just hangs any help please
    >>> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >>> I'm a newbee to linux

    >>
    >> Hi
    >>
    >> If you are a newbee, the faster and easy solution is to get the install DVD
    >> and reinstall. It will take 20 to 40 mn. Format the root partition to have
    >> a clean install (the installer will ask you for it) but DON'T format your
    >> home partition. That's it.
    >>
    >> With bigger experience in Linux, you will be able to know what happened and
    >> you will be able to fix it in a more professional way.
    >>
    >> (As beginners, most of use had to format the root partition at least one
    >> time).

    >This means I will loose downloaded software and data


    Not much good if you cannot boot into the distro!

    What data? Any user data should NOT be in system partition.



  14. Filesystems Mini-HowTo (was: "Mandriva fail to start")

    On Tuesday 12 August 2008 06:15, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/

    > Amrein-Marie Christophe wrote:
    >
    >> (As beginners, most of use had to format the root partition at least one
    >> time).

    >
    > This means I will loose downloaded software and data


    Well, apart from the age-old adagio "Thou shalt always make backups" as
    dictated to St. Linus by the Holy Tux on the Sacred Mountain of GNU, the
    more experienced users tend to split off certain trees from the root
    filesystem so as to reduce filesystem fragmentation - not that this is
    generally a problem in GNU/Linux - as well as the risk of filesystem
    corruption.

    It is generally considered a Good Idea (tm) to split off the following
    filesystems from the root directory, i.e. to have their contents physically
    live on another partition (on the same or another disk) and to have them
    mounted into the directory tree automatically at boot time.

    */boot* = contains kernel images, /initrd/ images and GRUB stages (static)
    */usr* = contains the bulk of multiuser software (static)
    */opt* = contains additional multiuser software (static)
    */home* = contains users' home directories (variable)
    */var* = contains log files, mail spools, printer spools, et al (variable)
    */tmp* = contains sockets (variable, world-writable)
    */srv* = contains shared datafiles (variable, not present on every system)

    Before I go on, there are certain directories in the root directory which
    have their contents live in RAM or in the kernel. In other words, the
    files and directories they contain are _not_ on your hard disk. These
    directories are...:

    */dev* = contains device special files (its contents used to live on
    the hard disk but newer GNU/Linux systems use /udev,/ which
    dynamically creates and destroys device special files when
    needed; these files all live on a /tmpfs,/ i.e. a swappable
    ramdisk

    */proc* = this is an interface with the kernel, presented as a filesystem to
    the user so that certain configuration options can be enabled or
    disabled in the kernel

    */sys* = this is another interface with the kernel, similar to */proc* and
    once existing as a part of it; it is now a separate filesystem and
    is used by /udev/ to get its information from regarding the hardware
    connected to your system

    Next, there are also directories which you should *not* split off from the
    root directory, either because they are needed at boot time, or because
    there's no point in splitting them off, or because they might be split off
    by a very experienced system administrator but not without some extra work
    that a newbie had better not start messing with. These filesystems are...:

    */bin* = binaries, needed at boot time and in single user mode
    */sbin* = system binaries, needed at boot time and in single user mode
    */etc* = systemwide configuration files, needed at boot time
    */lib* = systemwide libraries, needed at boot time
    */mnt* = (parent) mountpoint for partitions that are alien to the system
    or that are mounted only temporarily, e.g. for making backups
    */media* = parent mountpoint for removable devices
    */root* = the root user's home directory, needed in single user mode
    */initrd* = Mandriva-specific directory needed when booting up while using
    an initial ramdisk - Mandriva stock kernels need this

    Now, by having the directories that I mentioned higher up reside on
    different filesystems, you not only reduce filesystem fragmentation, but
    you also allow for the possibility to reformat your system partitions
    during a reinstall or while installing another distribution instead without
    having to format your home directories and lose your data.

    Additionally, by keeping your static directories separate from the dynamic
    directories, you also reduce the chances to filesystem corruption if
    anything goes wrong. Yet, in my humble opinion, the greatest advantage of
    splitting off these directories from the root filesystem is that you can
    mount each of them with different mounting options, and/or format each of
    them with a different type of filesystem, or a different blocksize.

    If you read the /man/ page for /mount/ and /fstab,/ you will see a number of
    very different possible mount options per type of filesystem. For
    instance, mount options for /XFS/ will be slightly different from those
    for /ext3,/ while others will be common.

    The file on your system where the mount options for filesystems are
    configured is */etc/fstab.* The file is a plain text database, comprising
    of records - vertically - and each record comprises of space-separated
    fields - horizontally. These fields are - from left to right...:

    1. the device special file for the device, or its filesystem label, or its
    UUID, e.g. */dev/sda1* for the first primary partition on the first SCSI,
    SATA, Firewire or USB device

    2. the mountpoint to which the device will be mounted in the directory tree,
    e.g. */boot* - note: the swap partition usually has the value /none/ here

    3. the type of filesystem on the device, e.g. *ext3* or *auto* for devices
    that might have varying filesystem types, e.g. floppies or CD/DVD disks

    4. the mount options as a comma-separated list of items without spaces
    (note: a space is a field separator in this file and indicates that
    what follows is no longer part of the mount options); for a hard disk
    partition, you will typically see the value *defaults* - you can read
    in the abovementioned /man/ pages what the defaults are for each type
    of filesystem - eventually completed with other mount options to override
    the default

    5. the dump priority - typically 0, 1 or 2; this field is still present in
    all GNU/Linux systems but its values are rarely important; it serves so
    as to indicate the priority for making backups using the /dump/ utility,
    which has already been largely replaced by other utilities by now

    6. the filesystem integrity check priority; this is used to tell the system
    whether the filesystem should always be checked at boot or not, and in
    what priority

    Now, if we look at the default mount options for /ext3,/ we see that the
    keyword /defaults/ in */etc/fstab* covers the following options:
    - auto = mounted automatically at boot time
    - async = synchronization between virtual and physical filesystem
    is delayed to enhance performance
    - atime = the /atime/ field in the file's /inode/ is updated everytime
    the file is accessed, even if only for reading
    - exec = the filesystem may contain executable files
    - suid = the filesystem may contain executables with /setuid/ bit
    - dev = the filesystem may contain device special files
    - rw = the filesystem is mounted readable and writeable
    - nouser = the filesystem may not be mounted or unmounted by an unprivileged
    user

    Now, for safety reasons on a system with many user accounts, you might
    decide to stick to the defaults, but with a few extra options. For
    instance, you don't want the kernel to interpret device special files on
    the filesystem containing the users' home directories. So you could then
    alter the /defaults/ mount option in */etc/fstab* to /defaults,nodev/ -
    note: there is no space after the comma.

    This means that the filesystem will be mounted with all default options
    except for /dev,/ because you have specified that it must be /nodev/
    instead.

    Similarly, I personally like to have all my static filesystems read-only
    during normal system operation. There is no need to have them mounted
    writable unless you're installing software on them, and by having them
    read-only they are protected both against filesystem corruption and against
    tampering by malicious code - e.g. a bug which allows for privilege
    escalation - should this ever make it into your system; malware for
    GNU/Linux exists, but only as a "proof of concept".

    There is to my knowledge no real malware for GNU/Linux out there in the
    wild, and one the reasons for that is that the system is too hard to get
    infected due to the multiuser design which denies write access to system
    files for regular users.

    All mount options are explained in the /man/ pages for /mount/ and /fstab./
    You can access these pages by opening a terminal window and typing...

    man mount

    .... and...

    man fstab

    Use the arrow keys and /PgUp/ or /PgDn/ to browser through the page, and
    press "q" when you're done viewing it; /Ctrl+D/ will exit the shell and
    close the window.

    Another method is to open up the KDE Konqueror browser and typing
    *man:/mount* in the address bar, and similarly for /fstab./ This is an
    easier way to view /man/ pages and you may find this gentler on the eyes as
    well - read: you probably hate the commandline and you want a clickable
    GUI, like all newbies. (The KDE Help Browser also has a section
    with /man/ pages, by the way, as well as /info/ pages.)

    Lastly one more tip...: Most people who split off directories from the root
    filesystem these days have the */tmp* filesystem sit on a /tmpfs,/ which is
    the same kind of swappable ramdisk as used for */dev* by the /udev/ system.

    /tmpfs/ does not require a predefined size and will only consume as much RAM
    as for what's on the filesystem, so if there's only a file worth 5 KB on
    it, then only 5 KB of your RAM will be lost to storage. Also, because
    */tmp* is world-writable - i.e. it is writable to every user account on the
    system - it is safer not to have that one sit on your root filesystem so as
    to avoid kernel panics and so as to keep your root filesystem as static as
    possible. The root filesystem is written to at boot time and whenever a
    filesystem is mounted or unmounted, but it should be kept static and small.

    In light of security, it is therefore also best to have */tmp* mounted with
    the /nodev,noexec,nosuid/ options as well, so that nobody can place
    executable files there or create corrupted device special files on it.

    Well, just read through the documentation and you'll see. ;-)

    And lastly, here's more information on the designation of directories in a
    UNIX system...:

    http://www.pathname.com/fhs/pub/fhs-2.3.html

    Hope this was helpful... ;-)

    --
    *Aragorn*
    (registered GNU/Linux user #223157)

  15. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    On Sun, 10 Aug 2008 08:24:17 -0400, Chris Taylor wrote:

    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux


    The above message indicates haldaemon finished ok, so it's the next service
    that is causing the problem.

    Can you boot to run level 1, run chkconfig --list>somefile.txt, and then
    copy/paste the contents of somefile.txt here?

    Regards, Dave Hodgins

    --
    Change nomail.afraid.org to ody.ca to reply by email.
    (nomail.afraid.org has been set up specifically for
    use in usenet. Feel free to use it yourself.)

  16. Re: Filesystems Mini-HowTo

    Aragorn wrote:
    > On Tuesday 12 August 2008 06:15, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    > in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/
    >
    >> Amrein-Marie Christophe wrote:
    >>
    >>> (As beginners, most of use had to format the root partition at least one
    >>> time).

    >> This means I will loose downloaded software and data

    >
    > Well, apart from the age-old adagio "Thou shalt always make backups" as
    > dictated to St. Linus by the Holy Tux on the Sacred Mountain of GNU, the
    > more experienced users tend to split off certain trees from the root
    > filesystem so as to reduce filesystem fragmentation - not that this is
    > generally a problem in GNU/Linux - as well as the risk of filesystem
    > corruption.
    >
    > It is generally considered a Good Idea (tm) to split off the following
    > filesystems from the root directory, i.e. to have their contents physically
    > live on another partition (on the same or another disk) and to have them
    > mounted into the directory tree automatically at boot time.
    >
    > */boot* = contains kernel images, /initrd/ images and GRUB stages (static)
    > */usr* = contains the bulk of multiuser software (static)
    > */opt* = contains additional multiuser software (static)
    > */home* = contains users' home directories (variable)
    > */var* = contains log files, mail spools, printer spools, et al (variable)
    > */tmp* = contains sockets (variable, world-writable)
    > */srv* = contains shared datafiles (variable, not present on every system)
    >
    > Before I go on, there are certain directories in the root directory which
    > have their contents live in RAM or in the kernel. In other words, the
    > files and directories they contain are _not_ on your hard disk. These
    > directories are...:
    >
    > */dev* = contains device special files (its contents used to live on
    > the hard disk but newer GNU/Linux systems use /udev,/ which
    > dynamically creates and destroys device special files when
    > needed; these files all live on a /tmpfs,/ i.e. a swappable
    > ramdisk
    >
    > */proc* = this is an interface with the kernel, presented as a filesystem to
    > the user so that certain configuration options can be enabled or
    > disabled in the kernel
    >
    > */sys* = this is another interface with the kernel, similar to */proc* and
    > once existing as a part of it; it is now a separate filesystem and
    > is used by /udev/ to get its information from regarding the hardware
    > connected to your system
    >
    > Next, there are also directories which you should *not* split off from the
    > root directory, either because they are needed at boot time, or because
    > there's no point in splitting them off, or because they might be split off
    > by a very experienced system administrator but not without some extra work
    > that a newbie had better not start messing with. These filesystems are...:
    >
    > */bin* = binaries, needed at boot time and in single user mode
    > */sbin* = system binaries, needed at boot time and in single user mode
    > */etc* = systemwide configuration files, needed at boot time
    > */lib* = systemwide libraries, needed at boot time
    > */mnt* = (parent) mountpoint for partitions that are alien to the system
    > or that are mounted only temporarily, e.g. for making backups
    > */media* = parent mountpoint for removable devices
    > */root* = the root user's home directory, needed in single user mode
    > */initrd* = Mandriva-specific directory needed when booting up while using
    > an initial ramdisk - Mandriva stock kernels need this
    >
    > Now, by having the directories that I mentioned higher up reside on
    > different filesystems, you not only reduce filesystem fragmentation, but
    > you also allow for the possibility to reformat your system partitions
    > during a reinstall or while installing another distribution instead without
    > having to format your home directories and lose your data.
    >
    > Additionally, by keeping your static directories separate from the dynamic
    > directories, you also reduce the chances to filesystem corruption if
    > anything goes wrong. Yet, in my humble opinion, the greatest advantage of
    > splitting off these directories from the root filesystem is that you can
    > mount each of them with different mounting options, and/or format each of
    > them with a different type of filesystem, or a different blocksize.
    >
    > If you read the /man/ page for /mount/ and /fstab,/ you will see a number of
    > very different possible mount options per type of filesystem. For
    > instance, mount options for /XFS/ will be slightly different from those
    > for /ext3,/ while others will be common.
    >
    > The file on your system where the mount options for filesystems are
    > configured is */etc/fstab.* The file is a plain text database, comprising
    > of records - vertically - and each record comprises of space-separated
    > fields - horizontally. These fields are - from left to right...:
    >
    > 1. the device special file for the device, or its filesystem label, or its
    > UUID, e.g. */dev/sda1* for the first primary partition on the first SCSI,
    > SATA, Firewire or USB device
    >
    > 2. the mountpoint to which the device will be mounted in the directory tree,
    > e.g. */boot* - note: the swap partition usually has the value /none/ here
    >
    > 3. the type of filesystem on the device, e.g. *ext3* or *auto* for devices
    > that might have varying filesystem types, e.g. floppies or CD/DVD disks
    >
    > 4. the mount options as a comma-separated list of items without spaces
    > (note: a space is a field separator in this file and indicates that
    > what follows is no longer part of the mount options); for a hard disk
    > partition, you will typically see the value *defaults* - you can read
    > in the abovementioned /man/ pages what the defaults are for each type
    > of filesystem - eventually completed with other mount options to override
    > the default
    >
    > 5. the dump priority - typically 0, 1 or 2; this field is still present in
    > all GNU/Linux systems but its values are rarely important; it serves so
    > as to indicate the priority for making backups using the /dump/ utility,
    > which has already been largely replaced by other utilities by now
    >
    > 6. the filesystem integrity check priority; this is used to tell the system
    > whether the filesystem should always be checked at boot or not, and in
    > what priority
    >
    > Now, if we look at the default mount options for /ext3,/ we see that the
    > keyword /defaults/ in */etc/fstab* covers the following options:
    > - auto = mounted automatically at boot time
    > - async = synchronization between virtual and physical filesystem
    > is delayed to enhance performance
    > - atime = the /atime/ field in the file's /inode/ is updated everytime
    > the file is accessed, even if only for reading
    > - exec = the filesystem may contain executable files
    > - suid = the filesystem may contain executables with /setuid/ bit
    > - dev = the filesystem may contain device special files
    > - rw = the filesystem is mounted readable and writeable
    > - nouser = the filesystem may not be mounted or unmounted by an unprivileged
    > user
    >
    > Now, for safety reasons on a system with many user accounts, you might
    > decide to stick to the defaults, but with a few extra options. For
    > instance, you don't want the kernel to interpret device special files on
    > the filesystem containing the users' home directories. So you could then
    > alter the /defaults/ mount option in */etc/fstab* to /defaults,nodev/ -
    > note: there is no space after the comma.
    >
    > This means that the filesystem will be mounted with all default options
    > except for /dev,/ because you have specified that it must be /nodev/
    > instead.
    >
    > Similarly, I personally like to have all my static filesystems read-only
    > during normal system operation. There is no need to have them mounted
    > writable unless you're installing software on them, and by having them
    > read-only they are protected both against filesystem corruption and against
    > tampering by malicious code - e.g. a bug which allows for privilege
    > escalation - should this ever make it into your system; malware for
    > GNU/Linux exists, but only as a "proof of concept".
    >
    > There is to my knowledge no real malware for GNU/Linux out there in the
    > wild, and one the reasons for that is that the system is too hard to get
    > infected due to the multiuser design which denies write access to system
    > files for regular users.
    >
    > All mount options are explained in the /man/ pages for /mount/ and /fstab./
    > You can access these pages by opening a terminal window and typing...
    >
    > man mount
    >
    > ... and...
    >
    > man fstab
    >
    > Use the arrow keys and /PgUp/ or /PgDn/ to browser through the page, and
    > press "q" when you're done viewing it; /Ctrl+D/ will exit the shell and
    > close the window.
    >
    > Another method is to open up the KDE Konqueror browser and typing
    > *man:/mount* in the address bar, and similarly for /fstab./ This is an
    > easier way to view /man/ pages and you may find this gentler on the eyes as
    > well - read: you probably hate the commandline and you want a clickable
    > GUI, like all newbies. (The KDE Help Browser also has a section
    > with /man/ pages, by the way, as well as /info/ pages.)
    >
    > Lastly one more tip...: Most people who split off directories from the root
    > filesystem these days have the */tmp* filesystem sit on a /tmpfs,/ which is
    > the same kind of swappable ramdisk as used for */dev* by the /udev/ system.
    >
    > /tmpfs/ does not require a predefined size and will only consume as much RAM
    > as for what's on the filesystem, so if there's only a file worth 5 KB on
    > it, then only 5 KB of your RAM will be lost to storage. Also, because
    > */tmp* is world-writable - i.e. it is writable to every user account on the
    > system - it is safer not to have that one sit on your root filesystem so as
    > to avoid kernel panics and so as to keep your root filesystem as static as
    > possible. The root filesystem is written to at boot time and whenever a
    > filesystem is mounted or unmounted, but it should be kept static and small.
    >
    > In light of security, it is therefore also best to have */tmp* mounted with
    > the /nodev,noexec,nosuid/ options as well, so that nobody can place
    > executable files there or create corrupted device special files on it.
    >
    > Well, just read through the documentation and you'll see. ;-)
    >
    > And lastly, here's more information on the designation of directories in a
    > UNIX system...:
    >
    > http://www.pathname.com/fhs/pub/fhs-2.3.html
    >
    > Hope this was helpful... ;-)
    >

    Would linux split the partition by default as a newbee I left mandriva
    just about do as it pleased

  17. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    Chris Taylor wrote:
    > hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    > When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    > Then it just hangs any help please
    > Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    > I'm a newbee to linux

    So linux has no repair command

  18. Re: Filesystems Mini-HowTo (was: "Mandriva fail to start")

    On Tue, 12 Aug 2008 02:16:41 -0400, Aragorn wrote:

    > It is generally considered a Good Idea (tm) to split off the following
    > filesystems from the root directory, i.e. to have their contents physically


    > */boot* = contains kernel images, /initrd/ images and GRUB stages (static)


    I stopped keeping /boot seperate from /, when I found that memtest will not
    work, if it isn't in the root filesystem.

    In addition to the advice you've givien, I also suggest seting up a very small
    filesystem, for use as the container of mount points, for all not normally
    mounted file systems. That way, if you try to copy a large file to a
    filesystem you haven't mounted, you find out right away, instead of filling
    your root filesystem, with files that may be hidden, after you reboot.

    I currently have ...
    $ df
    Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/hda14 1020M 461M 559M 46% /
    /dev/mapper/81-home 508M 226M 282M 45% /home
    /dev/mapper/81-opt 1.5G 325M 1.2G 22% /opt
    /dev/mapper/81-tmp 6.0G 4.5M 6.0G 1% /tmp
    /dev/mapper/81-usr 16G 12G 5.0G 70% /usr
    /dev/mapper/81-var 12G 5.1G 7.0G 42% /var
    /dev/hda15 108M 17M 91M 16% /var/log
    /dev/mapper/81-mnt 3.9M 69K 3.7M 2% /var/mnt
    /dev/shm 1014M 2.3M 1012M 1% /dev/shm
    /dev/mapper/81-data 48G 28G 21G 58% /var/mnt/data

    I've deleted /mnt, and /media, replacing them with symlinks to /var/mnt, which
    is where I have all of the mount points for my win98, win xp, and other linux
    distro mount points.

    When I was still new to linux, I had a boot fail, becuase the root filesystem
    was full, and only figured out why, after booting from a live cd, and finding I'd
    copied a dvd iso to an unmounted filesystem. The copy worked, but left such a
    small amount of space, that it got filled by log entries. After finding out that
    a full root filesystem makes a system unbootable, I went from one filesystem, to
    the above.

    As the device names above show, I'm using logical volumes, so I can easily resize
    filesystems, if I made a poor choice in the inital sizes, without having to
    backup/restore the contents. The data filesystem is a luks encrypted filesystem,
    which most of my /home/dave/dirnames are symlinked to.

    Regards, Dave Hodgins


    --
    Change nomail.afraid.org to ody.ca to reply by email.
    (nomail.afraid.org has been set up specifically for
    use in usenet. Feel free to use it yourself.)

  19. Re: Filesystems Mini-HowTo

    On Tuesday 12 August 2008 08:40, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/

    > Aragorn wrote:
    >
    >> Well, apart from the age-old adagio "Thou shalt always make backups" as
    >> dictated to St. Linus by the Holy Tux on the Sacred Mountain of GNU, the
    >> more experienced users tend to split off certain trees from the root
    >> filesystem so as to reduce filesystem fragmentation - not that this is
    >> generally a problem in GNU/Linux - as well as the risk of filesystem
    >> corruption.
    >>
    >> It is generally considered a Good Idea (tm) to split off the following
    >> filesystems from the root directory, i.e. to have their contents
    >> physically live on another partition (on the same or another disk) and to
    >> have them mounted into the directory tree automatically at boot time.
    >>
    >> [...]
    >>

    > Would linux split the partition by default as a newbee I left mandriva
    > just about do as it pleased


    Normally not. If you don't get to see a partitioning tool during
    installation, then Mandriva will most likely just preserve your Windows
    partitions - I presume you have those - and will then create a root
    filesystem and a swap partition.

    In order to do any custom partitioning, you'll need to click the button
    labeled /"Advanced"./ Recommended partition sizes are...:
    - /boot : 100 MB
    - / : 250 MB
    - /usr : 8000 MB (for a complete install)
    - /opt : 1000 MB
    - /var : 2000 MB (500 MB for a laptop/PC)
    - /tmp : 200 MB
    - /home : as much as you like
    - /srv : as much as you like - not present on every system
    - swap : depending on your RAM - with 2 GB, 500 MB of swap should be plenty


    --
    *Aragorn*
    (registered GNU/Linux user #223157)

  20. Re: Mandriva fail to start

    On Tuesday 12 August 2008 08:41, someone identifying as *Chris Taylor* wrote
    in /alt.os.linux.mandriva:/

    > Chris Taylor wrote:
    >
    >> hi I have mandriva 2008.0 free
    >> When it boots not it gets to Starting HAL DEAMON: [OK]
    >> Then it just hangs any help please
    >> Please if you need more info please ask and I will do my best to supply
    >> I'm a newbee to linux

    >
    > So linux has no repair command


    That depends on what you mean by a "repair command" - I'm sorry, but I don't
    do Windows and I'm not familiar with its tools.

    If there is a root filesystem problem, you can get to a working filesystem
    repair console or sometimes even to a complete working shell in single user
    maintenance mode.

    If however there is a problem in the boot sequence itself, then you can't
    repair anything from there and then you have to use a Live CD or a Rescue
    CD - the installation CD has a rescue mode - to repair things.

    You must also keep in mind that GNU/Linux is a UNIX clone, and UNIX systems
    are normally not intended to be shut down the way a Windows PC is shut
    down. The UNIX architecture was basically designed to run 24/7, and so
    reboots are rare - you'd typically only need it to start a newly installed
    kernel, or after a hardware failure or a power outage (if your system is
    not on a UPS or the power outage exceeds the capacity of the UPS).

    --
    *Aragorn*
    (registered GNU/Linux user #223157)

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