'd' command. - Mandriva

This is a discussion on 'd' command. - Mandriva ; I'm sure many on this group already know this but I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke less I know but it made me wonder how many ...

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Thread: 'd' command.

  1. 'd' command.

    I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    less I know but it made me wonder how many other
    shortcuts like this there are?

    Andy J.

  2. Re: 'd' command.

    Quoth Andy J. :

    > I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    > I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    > enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    > less I know but it made me wonder how many other
    > shortcuts like this there are?
    >


    Not "shortcuts" instead it's a bash alias. Type alias from command line to
    get a list of what Mandriva has set up for you.

    alias: usage: alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]

    You can make your own, I think they're supposed to go in your bashrc file.
    --
    The Man in the Yellow Hat
    Linux with a monkey, since 1996.

  3. Re: 'd' command.

    On Sun, 06 May 2007 11:56:10 +0100, Andy J. wrote:
    > I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    > I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    > enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    > less I know but it made me wonder how many other
    > shortcuts like this there are?


    Depends on what is installed.

    There are system wide and user defined aliases, functions and exported values.

    For bash, global for everyone
    /etc/profile - environment variables (PATH, USER, LOGNAME,...)
    /etc/bashrc - contains function & aliases, not environment vars
    You can place functions in the profile if you want to export the
    function name. Example export -f function_name_here.

    It is instructive to read the files in /etc/profile.d, if you have one.

    I would place site/custom global environment variables in zz_local.sh
    That way you can pop zz_local.sh in on new installs.

    If you have an /etc/profile.d directory; do a

    cd /etc/profile.d
    touch zz_local.sh
    chmod 755 zz_local.sh
    Then add your changes, Example: export PATH=$PATH:new_path:another_path

    The zz_local.sh name was picked to force it to be executed last.
    /etc/profile runs the scripts in /etc/profile.d
    do a ls -1 /etc/profile.d to see order of file execution.
    User only
    ~userid_here/.bash_profile - for environment variables
    ~userid_here/.bashrc - for function & aliases, not env vars

    ALWAYS do a su -l user_id to test your changes before logging out.

    You can place functions in the .bash_profile if you want to export the
    function name. Example export -f function_name_here.

    Profiles usually run once, bashrc run everytime you spin up a non-login
    interactive session.

    Sessions inherit env vars from the parent process.

    Setting BASH_ENV=~/.bashrc will cause it to execute during
    non-interactive session.

    Other places environment variables are set are
    /etc/X11/xinit.d/
    /usr/share/config/kdm/Xsession
    /usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc
    /etc/X11/Xsession

    You might find http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/index.html useful if
    trying to understand scripts.


  4. Re: 'd' command.

    On 2007-05-06, Andy J. wrote:
    > I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    > I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    > enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    > less


    That's because its set up as an alias. It's not a bash command,
    and may differ between distros.

    > I know but it made me wonder how many other
    > shortcuts like this there are?
    >

    Type 'alias' at the command line for more...

    Lordy


  5. Re: 'd' command.

    > Type 'alias' at the command line for more...
    =========
    Tnx ,very useful....good learning experience.

    Frank

  6. Be carefull with scripts in /etc/profile.d (was Re: 'd' command.

    On Sun, 06 May 2007 08:23:47 -0400, Bit Twister wrote:

    > It is instructive to read the files in /etc/profile.d, if you have one..


    Be carefull.

    The scripts in /etc/profile.d are no longer only executed at startup.

    The scripts there must be able to be rerun, at any time, without
    failing.

    I downloaded and installed gutenprint-5.0.0~lsb3.1.i486.rpm

    In order to get the rpm to install, I had to comment out the line
    in /etc/profile.d/msec.sh that modifies the TMOUT bash variable,
    to be readonly, and reboot, as there doesn't appear to be a way
    to change a readonly variable, back to not-readonly, except by
    rebooting.

    An extract from the rpm ...
    ================================================== =
    # Source /etc/profile and all scripts in /etc/profile.d, so that PATHs and
    # other shell settings from other LSB packages get available
    .. /etc/profile
    for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do if [ -x $i ]; then . $i; fi; done; unset i

    # Create some directories if they are missing. Usually, they should exist
    mkdir /opt 2>/dev/null || true
    postinstall scriptlet (using /bin/sh):
    # Source /etc/profile and all scripts in /etc/profile.d, so that PATHs and
    # other shell settings from other LSB packages get available
    .. /etc/profile
    for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do if [ -x $i ]; then . $i; fi; done; unset i

    # LSB requires that a login shell executes all .sh scripts in the
    # /etc/profile.d directory
    ================================================== =

    So now, any script in /etc/profile.d, that fails when rerun, will cause
    rpm to fail on installation attempts.

    Regards, Dave Hodgins

    --
    Change nomail.afraid.org to ody.ca to reply by email.
    (nomail.afraid.org has been set up specifically for
    use in usenet. Feel free to use it yourself.)

  7. Re: 'd' command.

    On Sun, 06 May 2007 12:03:00 +0000, Big Yellow Hats wrote:

    > Quoth Andy J. :
    >
    >> I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    >> I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    >> enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    >> less I know but it made me wonder how many other
    >> shortcuts like this there are?
    >>

    >
    > Not "shortcuts" instead it's a bash alias. Type alias from command line to
    > get a list of what Mandriva has set up for you.
    >
    > alias: usage: alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
    >
    > You can make your own, I think they're supposed to go in your bashrc file.


    Better if one adds, to ~/.bashrc;

    test -s ~/.alias && . ~/.alias

    Then create a .alias file to place in ~/ with all your aliases. I mount a
    separate partition at ~/Documents on eight different OSs so I have an
    "alias" file in that, which I soft link to ~/.alias on each OS, so any new
    alias I create shows up on all OSs, without retyping.

    --
    imotgm
    "Lost? Lost? I've never been lost... Been a tad confused for a
    month or two, but never lost."



  8. Re: 'd' command.

    Quoth imotgm :

    >
    > Better if one adds, to ~/.bashrc;
    >
    > test -s ~/.alias && . ~/.alias
    >
    > Then create a .alias file to place in ~/ with all your aliases. I mount a
    > separate partition at ~/Documents on eight different OSs so I have an
    > "alias" file in that, which I soft link to ~/.alias on each OS, so any
    > new alias I create shows up on all OSs, without retyping.
    >


    good ideer!
    --
    The Man in the Yellow Hat
    Linux with a monkey, since 1996.

  9. Re: Be carefull with scripts in /etc/profile.d (was Re: 'd' command.

    On 2007-05-06, David W. Hodgins wrote:
    > On Sun, 06 May 2007 08:23:47 -0400, Bit Twister wrote:
    >
    >> It is instructive to read the files in /etc/profile.d, if you have one.

    >
    > Be carefull.
    >
    > The scripts in /etc/profile.d are no longer only executed at startup.


    They were never only executed at startup (were they ever executed
    at startup?)

    They are normally executed on login. Except that I comment them
    out whenever I install a new release; there is a lot of
    unnecessary, and even inadvisable, material in them.

    > The scripts there must be able to be rerun, at any time, without
    > failing.
    >
    > I downloaded and installed gutenprint-5.0.0~lsb3.1.i486.rpm
    >
    > In order to get the rpm to install, I had to comment out the line
    > in /etc/profile.d/msec.sh that modifies the TMOUT bash variable,
    > to be readonly, and reboot, as there doesn't appear to be a way
    > to change a readonly variable, back to not-readonly, except by
    > rebooting.


    Rebooting?? You're not serious!!

    At most, you have log out.


    --
    Chris F.A. Johnson, author |
    Shell Scripting Recipes: | My code in this post, if any,
    A Problem-Solution Approach | is released under the
    2005, Apress | GNU General Public Licence

  10. Re: 'd' command.

    Highland Ham wrote:
    >> Type 'alias' at the command line for more...

    > =========
    > Tnx ,very useful....good learning experience.
    >
    > Frank


    See, it's little tips like this that you only get to
    learn on newsgroups. Well my Mandriva LE2005 has a
    total of 18 'aliases' to play with. I'm not to sure
    about using 'lsd' though, never can be to sure of a
    bad trip......:-)

    Cheers Guys,
    Andy J.

  11. Re: 'd' command.

    On 2007-05-06, Bit Twister wrote:
    > On Sun, 06 May 2007 11:56:10 +0100, Andy J. wrote:
    >> I'm sure many on this group already know this but
    >> I just inadvertently typed 'd' into Bash and hit
    >> enter. It does the same job as 'ls'. Only one keystroke
    >> less I know but it made me wonder how many other
    >> shortcuts like this there are?

    >
    > Depends on what is installed.
    >
    > There are system wide and user defined aliases, functions and exported values.
    >
    > For bash, global for everyone
    > /etc/profile - environment variables (PATH, USER, LOGNAME,...)


    This is standard, and is sourced by all Bourne-type (login) shells.

    > /etc/bashrc - contains function & aliases, not environment
    > vars


    This is non-standard. Unlike /etc/profile, it is not sourced by
    bash; it has to be sourced from another file, such as /etc/profile.

    > You can place functions in the profile if you want to export the
    > function name. Example export -f function_name_here.
    >
    > It is instructive to read the files in /etc/profile.d, if you have one.


    The first thing I do on installing a new distro is comment out the
    lines in /etc/profile that source the files in /etc/profile.d;
    there is nothing necessary in there, and some dangerous things
    (especially in alias.sh).

    Then, at the top of my .bashrc, I remove any other aliases that
    might have snuck in from other scripts with: unalias -a

    > I would place site/custom global environment variables in zz_local.sh
    > That way you can pop zz_local.sh in on new installs.
    >
    > If you have an /etc/profile.d directory; do a
    >
    > cd /etc/profile.d
    > touch zz_local.sh
    > chmod 755 zz_local.sh
    > Then add your changes, Example: export PATH=$PATH:new_path:another_path
    >
    > The zz_local.sh name was picked to force it to be executed last.
    > /etc/profile runs the scripts in /etc/profile.d
    > do a ls -1 /etc/profile.d to see order of file execution.
    > User only
    > ~userid_here/.bash_profile - for environment variables
    > ~userid_here/.bashrc - for function & aliases, not env vars
    >
    > ALWAYS do a su -l user_id to test your changes before logging out.
    >
    > You can place functions in the .bash_profile if you want to export the
    > function name. Example export -f function_name_here.


    You can place functions in .bash_profile even if you don't want to
    export the function name.

    > Profiles usually run once, bashrc run everytime you spin up a non-login
    > interactive session.
    >
    > Sessions inherit env vars from the parent process.
    >
    > Setting BASH_ENV=~/.bashrc will cause it to execute during
    > non-interactive session.


    You also need to export it.

    > Other places environment variables are set are
    > /etc/X11/xinit.d/
    > /usr/share/config/kdm/Xsession
    > /usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc
    > /etc/X11/Xsession
    >
    > You might find http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/index.html useful if
    > trying to understand scripts.



    --
    Chris F.A. Johnson, author |
    Shell Scripting Recipes: | My code in this post, if any,
    A Problem-Solution Approach | is released under the
    2005, Apress | GNU General Public Licence

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