[Newbie]GRUB issue - Linux

This is a discussion on [Newbie]GRUB issue - Linux ; Hi, I had installed Fecora Core 3 and Windows XP on my laptop. GRUB was working fine allowing me to boot into either. However recently I re-installed XP and now the boot loader doesn't show up (I don't get the ...

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  1. [Newbie]GRUB issue

    Hi,

    I had installed Fecora Core 3 and Windows XP on my laptop. GRUB was working
    fine allowing me to boot into either.

    However recently I re-installed XP and now the boot loader doesn't show up
    (I don't get the menu that gives me the option to boot into XP or Ferdora).
    I tried booting from the installation disk and re-installing only the boot
    loader, but that didn't work. I also tried "linux rescue" which then went to
    the shell - strangely there isn't a /boot/grub.conf .

    I really can't seem to figure this out. It would be great if someone out
    there could let me know what I should be doing. Thanks!




  2. Re: GRUB issue

    Well, are you sure your XP re-installation did not overwrite the whole
    linux distro? try running fdisk to check what partitions eist.

    Don't forget that when you run the rescue you end up with a mini-file
    system in ram - you have to mount the hard disk (some rescue disks do
    it for you) elsewhere

    e.g.
    mount /dev/hda3 /hardisk (assuming /hardisk exists)
    then you would look in /hardisk/boot for grub.conf


  3. Re: [Newbie]GRUB issue

    DJP wrote:

    >Hi,
    >
    >I had installed Fecora Core 3 and Windows XP on my laptop. GRUB was working
    >fine allowing me to boot into either.
    >
    >However recently I re-installed XP and now the boot loader doesn't show up
    >(I don't get the menu that gives me the option to boot into XP or Ferdora).
    >I tried booting from the installation disk and re-installing only the boot
    >loader, but that didn't work. I also tried "linux rescue" which then went to
    >the shell - strangely there isn't a /boot/grub.conf .
    >
    >I really can't seem to figure this out. It would be great if someone out
    >there could let me know what I should be doing. Thanks!
    >
    >
    >
    >
    >

    The booting process goes like this: load the very first sector of the
    disk, called MBR - master boot record which contains the partition table
    and the booting code. The booting code transfers control to the code
    from the first sector of the active partition. Read here:
    http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/file/structMBR-c.html.

    Installing windows re-wrote your MBR and also changed your active
    partition to wherever windows is installed. You have to reinstall grub,
    thing for which you have 2 options:
    a) install directly into MBR (= change your "default" booting code with
    grub's)
    b) change your active partition to the linux partition, then install
    grub on the first sector of the linux partition (= keep "default"
    booting code, but control is now further transferred to grub, not to the
    windows loader)

    Personally I prefer the second way, because if (when) I have to
    reinstall Windows in the future, the next time it will be enough to
    change the active partition, without reinstalling GRUB. Do the following:
    - start with "linux rescue" option
    - run "fdisk /dev/hda", type "p" (=print partitions), then "t"+number
    of windows partition (toggle active flag => windows off), then
    "t"+number of linux partition(toggle active flag => linux on), "w" =
    write, "q" = quit. Please remember to check these commands in fdisk, I
    wrote them from memory.
    - chroot /dev/hdaX , where X is the number of the linux partition
    (=change root directory from CD to hard disk). This is why in "linux
    rescue" you didn't have any /boot/grub.conf - you were on the CD (or
    virtual) filesystem, not on the hdd.
    - grub install /dev/hda_number_of_linux_partition
    - edit /boot/grub/menu.conf and check if your configuration is ok (it
    should be if it used to work). For windows you should have an entry like
    this:
    title Windows
    rootnoverify (hd0, windows_partition_number)
    chainloader +1
    In the grub.conf the "windows_partition_number" is numbered starting
    from 0 not from 1, so it should be with one unit less than what fdisk
    tells you (e.g. if fdisk says /dev/hda3 ==> grub partition hd0,2 )

    If you want to install grub in MBR, skip the fdisk step above, and
    call "grub-install /dev/hda" instead of "grub-install /dev/hdaX"

    Hope this helps,
    Mihai

    PS: And next time post only to one or two newsgroups. Otherwise people
    get angry. http://livinginternet.com/u/ua_cross.htm


  4. Re: GRUB issue


    wrote in message
    news:1110200461.993064.305290@l41g2000cwc.googlegr oups.com...
    > Well, are you sure your XP re-installation did not overwrite the whole
    > linux distro? try running fdisk to check what partitions eist.


    No it hasn't overwritten it. XP has been installed to a different partition
    and when I get the command prompt in the rescue mode I am able to see my
    Linux files - so I think it is safe.

    > Don't forget that when you run the rescue you end up with a mini-file
    > system in ram - you have to mount the hard disk (some rescue disks do
    > it for you) elsewhere
    >
    > e.g.
    > mount /dev/hda3 /hardisk (assuming /hardisk exists)
    > then you would look in /hardisk/boot for grub.conf


    I was able to do an "ls" and saw the rest of the usual files and
    directories(/usr, /dev, etc.) without doing the mount. Anyways I was just
    looking for grub.conf as weak way of verifying that the boot loader was
    installed. Even if I do find it I haven't a clue what I can do with it to
    fix my problem. I just mentioned it in the post thinking that it may help in
    diagnosing the problem.



  5. Re: GRUB issue

    DJP wrote:
    > wrote in message
    > news:1110200461.993064.305290@l41g2000cwc.googlegr oups.com...
    >
    >>Well, are you sure your XP re-installation did not overwrite the whole
    >>linux distro? try running fdisk to check what partitions eist.

    >
    >
    > No it hasn't overwritten it. XP has been installed to a different partition
    > and when I get the command prompt in the rescue mode I am able to see my
    > Linux files - so I think it is safe.
    >
    > > Don't forget that when you run the rescue you end up with a mini-file

    >
    >>system in ram - you have to mount the hard disk (some rescue disks do
    >>it for you) elsewhere
    >>
    >>e.g.
    >>mount /dev/hda3 /hardisk (assuming /hardisk exists)
    >>then you would look in /hardisk/boot for grub.conf

    >
    >
    > I was able to do an "ls" and saw the rest of the usual files and
    > directories(/usr, /dev, etc.) without doing the mount. Anyways I was just
    > looking for grub.conf as weak way of verifying that the boot loader was
    > installed. Even if I do find it I haven't a clue what I can do with it to
    > fix my problem. I just mentioned it in the post thinking that it may help in
    > diagnosing the problem.
    >
    >

    This is a well known problem. When you reinstall windows xp, it
    overwrites the MBR. all you have to do is reinstall your grub in the mbr
    use your fc3 disk, go in the rescue mode.
    then you have to chroot as follows
    $chroot /mnt/sysimage
    then reinstall grub as follows
    $grub
    once inside grub
    grub > root (hd0,7) if your boot partition is hda8 or
    grub > setup (hd0) this will install grub in the MBR assuming you once
    had a working grub.
    all the best
    jc

  6. Re: [Newbie]GRUB issue

    DJP wrote:

    > However recently I re-installed XP and now the boot loader doesn't show up
    > (I don't get the menu that gives me the option to boot into XP or Ferdora).
    > I tried booting from the installation disk and re-installing only the boot
    > loader, but that didn't work. I also tried "linux rescue" which then went to
    > the shell - strangely there isn't a /boot/grub.conf .
    >


    Others have given excellent advice on how to restore your MBR.
    I thought I'd just add that I believe grub.conf is in
    /boot/grub/grub.conf (not just /boot/grub.conf) -- handy to know
    when you want to change which OS is the default on a dual-boot
    system. There's also a symbolic link in /etc/grub.conf.
    This is one of those occasions when the "locate" command is your
    friend.

    -- Ron

  7. Re: GRUB issue

    > This is a well known problem. When you reinstall windows xp, it overwrites
    > the MBR. all you have to do is reinstall your grub in the mbr
    > use your fc3 disk, go in the rescue mode.
    > then you have to chroot as follows
    > $chroot /mnt/sysimage
    > then reinstall grub as follows
    > $grub
    > once inside grub
    > grub > root (hd0,7) if your boot partition is hda8 or
    > grub > setup (hd0) this will install grub in the MBR assuming you once had
    > a working grub.
    > all the best
    > jc


    Alternatively use GAG, put this in your MBR. Using this you never have to
    worry too much.

    JCE



  8. Re: GRUB issue

    it can also be in /boot/grub/menu.lst


  9. Re: GRUB issue

    Folks, I need some help ASAP. I just did the following:

    1.) Used the FC3 CD to boot using the linux rescue option
    2.) Did "chroot /mnt/sysimage"
    3.) Did "grub-install /dev/hda1"
    (/dev/hda2 is my Windows partition, /dev/hda5 is my Linux partition and
    /dev/hda1 is my boot partition - I think, I am not sure this makes any
    sense - Newbie here)

    After that I was able to boot into Fedora. But now GRUB doesn't allow
    me to boot into XP. XP was set as the default OS to boot into - GRUB
    doesn't boot into XP, it just keeps repeatedly showing the GRUB screen
    asking me to choose which OS I want to boot into. Once I chose XP,
    something like chainloader +1
    GRUB loading stage2
    is shown on screen and then it comes back to the GRUB screen.

    I have some really important documents in my Windows partition and I am
    seriously freaking out. It would be great if someone could help me out
    with this. I also tried the edit command with XP selected in the GRUB
    screen (I got two lines there which read:
    rootnoverify(hd0,0)
    chainloader +1)
    - I don't know if this is of any help)


  10. Re: GRUB issue


    wrote in message
    news:1110622963.871805.59030@l41g2000cwc.googlegro ups.com...
    > Folks, I need some help ASAP. I just did the following:
    >
    > 1.) Used the FC3 CD to boot using the linux rescue option
    > 2.) Did "chroot /mnt/sysimage"
    > 3.) Did "grub-install /dev/hda1"
    > (/dev/hda2 is my Windows partition, /dev/hda5 is my Linux partition and
    > /dev/hda1 is my boot partition - I think, I am not sure this makes any
    > sense - Newbie here)
    >
    > After that I was able to boot into Fedora. But now GRUB doesn't allow
    > me to boot into XP. XP was set as the default OS to boot into - GRUB
    > doesn't boot into XP, it just keeps repeatedly showing the GRUB screen
    > asking me to choose which OS I want to boot into. Once I chose XP,
    > something like chainloader +1
    > GRUB loading stage2
    > is shown on screen and then it comes back to the GRUB screen.


    You should have typed "grub-install /dev/hda". What you did blew away the
    Windows boot records on /dev/hda1, your Windows partition. You need to
    restore that somehow.

    Do you have a Windows installation CD that you can use to get to rescue mode
    for Windows?

    > I have some really important documents in my Windows partition and I am
    > seriously freaking out. It would be great if someone could help me out
    > with this. I also tried the edit command with XP selected in the GRUB
    > screen (I got two lines there which read:
    > rootnoverify(hd0,0)
    > chainloader +1)
    > - I don't know if this is of any help)


    Ahh, this is much easier. You can grab the NTFS kernel modules, or recompile
    them for your kernel, with the tools at
    http://sourceforge.net/projects/linux-ntfs/. This will allow you to read
    those files, although I don't recommend writing them from Linux, that kernel
    support is pretty limited.



  11. Re: GRUB issue

    On Sat, 12 Mar 2005 02:22:43 -0800, domnicjp thoughtfully wrote:

    > Folks, I need some help ASAP. I just did the following:
    >
    > 1.) Used the FC3 CD to boot using the linux rescue option 2.) Did "chroot
    > /mnt/sysimage"
    > 3.) Did "grub-install /dev/hda1"
    > (/dev/hda2 is my Windows partition, /dev/hda5 is my Linux partition and
    > /dev/hda1 is my boot partition - I think, I am not sure this makes any
    > sense - Newbie here)
    >
    > After that I was able to boot into Fedora. But now GRUB doesn't allow me
    > to boot into XP. XP was set as the default OS to boot into - GRUB doesn't
    > boot into XP, it just keeps repeatedly showing the GRUB screen asking me
    > to choose which OS I want to boot into. Once I chose XP, something like
    > chainloader +1
    > GRUB loading stage2
    > is shown on screen and then it comes back to the GRUB screen.
    >
    > I have some really important documents in my Windows partition and I am
    > seriously freaking out. It would be great if someone could help me out
    > with this. I also tried the edit command with XP selected in the GRUB
    > screen (I got two lines there which read: rootnoverify(hd0,0)
    > chainloader +1)
    > - I don't know if this is of any help)


    Maybe this link will help
    http://www.ces.clemson.edu/linux/fc2.shtml
    although it says FC2 I used it to fix my dual boot in FC3.

    I use NTFS RPMS to access my XP NTFS partitions from FC3
    ttp://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net/rpm/fedora3.html




  12. Re: GRUB issue

    Hi,

    Please can you give me precise instructions as to what to do. I am new
    to Linux and seem to have burnt my fingers over this. I have some
    really important data on the Windows partition and I can't seem to get
    at it. I downloaded the rpm package from the site you mentioned. I
    double clicked on it and it says it installed the package, however I am
    not sure how to use it. Am I supposed to build it on my machine? If so
    how?

    If not, where exactly has it been installed? 'Cuz I can't seem to see
    it anywhere?

    Also, how do I use it to get my data?

    Any help would be GREATLY appreciated.


  13. Re: GRUB issue

    On Sat, 12 Mar 2005 21:53:21 -0800, domnicjp thoughtfully wrote:

    > Hi,
    >
    > Please can you give me precise instructions as to what to do. I am new to
    > Linux and seem to have burnt my fingers over this. I have some really
    > important data on the Windows partition and I can't seem to get at it. I
    > downloaded the rpm package from the site you mentioned. I double clicked
    > on it and it says it installed the package, however I am not sure how to
    > use it. Am I supposed to build it on my machine? If so how?
    >
    > If not, where exactly has it been installed? 'Cuz I can't seem to see it
    > anywhere?
    >
    > Also, how do I use it to get my data?
    >
    > Any help would be GREATLY appreciated.


    No offense but if you are asking how to install NTFS rpm there
    is a link at the top of the rpm page to very detailed instructions.

    Read those before installing the rpm for your FC3 installation
    http://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net/rpm/instructions.html

    If you can't find your download which should be somewhere in the /home
    or /tmp directories then you need to run
    $ find / -iname "kernel*" | grep ntfs
    or
    $ find / -iname "*rpm" | grep ntfs


  14. Re: GRUB issue

    Thanks for your replies! I am sorry I didn't notice the instructions
    page - I am a bit frazzled at the thought of having all my data lost.

    Anyways I followed the instructions on the page and got the right
    package and did what was asked. However it doesn't seem to be working.

    Firstly when I do an fdisk, this is what I get:

    /sbin/fdisk -l

    Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60011642880 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 7296 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/hda1 * 1 5099 40957686 7 HPFS/NTFS
    /dev/hda2 5100 7295 17639370 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
    /dev/hda5 5100 7295 17639338+ 83 Linux

    Now I am trying to get at /dev/hda2 which I see is W95 Ext'd(LBA), so
    am I doing something wrong by mounting it as NTFS?

    Secondly when I try to mount it I get the following:

    mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/windows -t ntfs -r
    mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda2,
    or too many mounted file systems
    (aren't you trying to mount an extended partition,
    instead of some logical partition inside?)

    Now since /dev/hda1 is listed as NTFS, I thought maybe I can try
    mounting that to see if it works, but there too I get the following
    message:

    mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows -t ntfs -r
    mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda1,
    or too many mounted file systems

    Please can you guys advice on what I seem to be doing wrong - basically
    I just need to get at the data in /dev/hda2. Any help will be GREATLY
    appreciated. TIA.


  15. Re: GRUB issue

    domnicjp@gmail.com wrote:
    > Thanks for your replies! I am sorry I didn't notice the instructions
    > page - I am a bit frazzled at the thought of having all my data lost.
    >
    > Anyways I followed the instructions on the page and got the right
    > package and did what was asked. However it doesn't seem to be working.
    >
    > Firstly when I do an fdisk, this is what I get:
    >
    > /sbin/fdisk -l
    >
    > Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60011642880 bytes
    > 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 7296 cylinders
    > Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
    >
    > Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    > /dev/hda1 * 1 5099 40957686 7 HPFS/NTFS
    > /dev/hda2 5100 7295 17639370 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
    > /dev/hda5 5100 7295 17639338+ 83 Linux
    >
    > Now I am trying to get at /dev/hda2 which I see is W95 Ext'd(LBA), so
    > am I doing something wrong by mounting it as NTFS?
    >


    Please note that an extended partition is a container
    for partitions called logical disks. In Linux, the
    logical disks are partitions from 5 onward. An extended
    partition cannot contain directly a file system, and
    it is not mountable as such.

    In your case, the partition /dev/hda2 contains the
    partition /dev/hda5. Have a look at the cylinder numbers.

    As there are no other logical disks, the extended partition
    is actually unnecessary in this case (DO NOT ATTEMPT
    TO DELETE IT - you'll lose your Linux).

    The idea of extended partitions got necessary as soon as
    the disks grew so large that more than 4 partitions was
    sensible. The primary partition table lies inside the
    MBR (Master Boot Record), the very first block of the
    whole disk. As it has to contain the initial bootstrap
    code and the partition table, there is room for only
    four partition descriptors. The scheme of four partitions
    was designed for an IBM PC/XT with a 10 megabyte disk.

    --

    Tauno Voipio
    tauno voipio (at) iki fi


  16. Re: GRUB issue

    Hi again,

    I just realised that I made a mistake in posting my query earlier. I am
    trying to get at the data in /dev/hda1, but I keep getting the
    following error:

    mount -r -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows
    mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda1,
    or too many mounted file systems

    Also, the output of fdisk is shown below(if it is of any help):

    /sbin/fdisk -l

    Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60011642880 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 7296 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/hda1 * 1 5099 40957686 7 HPFS/NTFS
    /dev/hda2 5100 7295 17639370 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
    /dev/hda5 5100 7295 17639338+ 83 Linux

    Please can someone tell me as to what I should be doing to be able to
    get the data in /dev/hda1. Hope to hear from someone on this soon. TIA.


  17. Re: GRUB issue

    > mount -r -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows
    > mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda1,
    > or too many mounted file systems


    Did you modprobe the NTFS module? Or otherwise have NTFS support in your
    kernel?

    mount -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows -o ro,umask=0222,group,noatime

    linux-ntfs.sf.net - but this would be a mount issue, not a grub one now.

    note: umask == permissions you don't want to have. 222 == no write
    support

    HTH,
    Shadow_7


  18. Re: GRUB issue

    I downloaded the package from the webite and installed it. Also, cat
    /proc/filesystems lists ntfs, so I guess it should work.

    But when I do,

    mount -r -t /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows

    I get the error I mentioned earlier:

    mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda1,
    or too many mounted file systems

    Hope to hear from someone soon. TIA.


  19. Mounting NTFS, was: Re: GRUB issue

    domnicjp@gmail.com wrote:
    > Hi again,
    >
    > I just realised that I made a mistake in posting my query earlier. I am
    > trying to get at the data in /dev/hda1, but I keep getting the
    > following error:
    >
    > mount -r -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows
    > mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/hda1,
    > or too many mounted file systems
    >
    > Also, the output of fdisk is shown below(if it is of any help):
    >
    > /sbin/fdisk -l
    >
    > Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60011642880 bytes
    > 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 7296 cylinders
    > Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
    >
    > Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    > /dev/hda1 * 1 5099 40957686 7 HPFS/NTFS
    > /dev/hda2 5100 7295 17639370 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
    > /dev/hda5 5100 7295 17639338+ 83 Linux
    >
    > Please can someone tell me as to what I should be doing to be able to
    > get the data in /dev/hda1. Hope to hear from someone on this soon. TIA.
    >


    Check that your kernel has a NTFS server. You may need
    to modprobe ntfs before mounting. You can look at the
    /proc/filesystems file (cat /proc/filesystems).

    Also, check that the mount point (/mnt/windows) exists.

    --

    Tauno Voipio
    tauno voipio (at) iki fi


  20. Re: Mounting NTFS, was: Re: GRUB issue

    As I mentioned in my post, cat /proc/filesystems lists ntfs.

    Also, /mnt/windows exists. Please do let me know as to what I am to do
    now.


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