4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3 - Hardware

This is a discussion on 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3 - Hardware ; This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I was asking questions recently. I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9 months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated ...

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Thread: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

  1. 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I was
    asking questions recently.

    I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9
    months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated nightly via
    crontab/yum.

    I used to have 2 GB, which was not enough because I was running some
    extreme memory hogs (azureus and some of my usenet related
    scripts). I used 2 memory slots out of 4. So, I bought two more memory
    sticks that are 1 GB each. Supposedly similar to my existing DDR400 sticks.

    Here are some excerpts from dmidecode, with full output attached at
    the bottom.

    Handle 0x003F, DMI type 16, 15 bytes.
    Physical Memory Array
    Location: System Board Or Motherboard
    Use: System Memory
    Error Correction Type: None
    Maximum Capacity: 4 GB
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Number Of Devices: 4

    Handle 0x0040, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A0
    Bank Locator: Bank0/1
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0041, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A1
    Bank Locator: Bank2/3
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0042, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A2
    Bank Locator: Bank4/5
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0043, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A3
    Bank Locator: Bank6/7
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    So, I think that dmidecode seems four 1 GB DIMMs, and the mobo allows
    up to 4 GB.

    And yet, 'free' says that I only have 3 GB:

    ::~==>free
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 3099284 1226308 1872976 0 57596 653148
    -/+ buffers/cache: 515564 2583720
    Swap: 1953432 0 1953432

    How come? How can I tell this computer to use all four gigabytes?

    thanks

    i
    P.S. dmidecode output to follow below

    ################################################## ####################
    # dmidecode 2.7
    SMBIOS 2.3 present.
    75 structures occupying 2217 bytes.
    Table at 0x000F0000.

    Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 20 bytes.
    BIOS Information
    Vendor: Phoenix Technologies, LTD
    Version: ASUS A8N5X ACPI BIOS Revision 0502
    Release Date: 11/08/2005
    Address: 0xE0000
    Runtime Size: 128 kB
    ROM Size: 512 kB
    Characteristics:
    PCI is supported
    PNP is supported
    APM is supported
    BIOS is upgradeable
    BIOS shadowing is allowed
    Boot from CD is supported
    Selectable boot is supported
    BIOS ROM is socketed
    EDD is supported
    5.25"/360 KB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
    5.25"/1.2 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
    3.5"/720 KB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
    3.5"/2.88 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
    Print screen service is supported (int 5h)
    8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)
    Serial services are supported (int 14h)
    Printer services are supported (int 17h)
    CGA/mono video services are supported (int 10h)
    ACPI is supported
    USB legacy is supported
    LS-120 boot is supported
    ATAPI Zip drive boot is supported
    BIOS boot specification is supported

    Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 25 bytes.
    System Information
    Manufacturer: System manufacturer
    Product Name: System Product Name
    Version: System Version
    Serial Number: System Serial Number
    UUID: 804176E8-C0C8-0F10-9660-D39C285FF480
    Wake-up Type: Power Switch

    Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 8 bytes.
    Base Board Information
    Manufacturer: ASUSTeK Computer INC.
    Product Name: A8N5X
    Version: 1.XX
    Serial Number: 123456789000

    Handle 0x0003, DMI type 3, 17 bytes.
    Chassis Information
    Manufacturer: Chassis Manufacture
    Type: Desktop
    Lock: Not Present
    Version: Chassis Version
    Serial Number: EVAL
    Asset Tag: 123456789000
    Boot-up State: Safe
    Power Supply State: Safe
    Thermal State: Safe
    Security Status: None
    OEM Information: 0x00000001

    Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 35 bytes.
    Processor Information
    Socket Designation: Socket 939
    Type: Central Processor
    Family: Athlon 64
    Manufacturer: AMD
    ID: B1 0F 02 00 FF FB 8B 17
    Signature: Extended Family 0, Model B, Stepping 1
    Flags:
    FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
    VME (Virtual mode extension)
    DE (Debugging extension)
    PSE (Page size extension)
    TSC (Time stamp counter)
    MSR (Model specific registers)
    PAE (Physical address extension)
    MCE (Machine check exception)
    CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
    APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)
    SEP (Fast system call)
    MTRR (Memory type range registers)
    PGE (Page global enable)
    MCA (Machine check architecture)
    CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)
    PAT (Page attribute table)
    PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
    CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)
    MMX (MMX technology supported)
    FXSR (Fast floating-point save and restore)
    SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)
    SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
    HTT (Hyper-threading technology)
    Version: AMD Athlon(tm) 64 X2 Dual Core Processor 4200+
    Voltage: 1.3 V
    External Clock: 200 MHz
    Max Speed: 3700 MHz
    Current Speed: 2200 MHz
    Status: Populated, Enabled
    Upgrade:
    L1 Cache Handle: 0x000B
    L2 Cache Handle: 0x000D
    L3 Cache Handle: Not Provided
    Serial Number:
    Asset Tag:
    Part Number:

    Handle 0x0005, DMI type 4, 35 bytes.
    Processor Information
    Socket Designation: Socket 939
    Type: Central Processor
    Family: Athlon 64
    Manufacturer: AMD
    ID: B1 0F 02 00 FF FB 8B 07
    Signature: Extended Family 0, Model B, Stepping 1
    Flags:
    FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
    VME (Virtual mode extension)
    DE (Debugging extension)
    PSE (Page size extension)
    TSC (Time stamp counter)
    MSR (Model specific registers)
    PAE (Physical address extension)
    MCE (Machine check exception)
    CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
    APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)
    SEP (Fast system call)
    MTRR (Memory type range registers)
    PGE (Page global enable)
    MCA (Machine check architecture)
    CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)
    PAT (Page attribute table)
    PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
    CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)
    MMX (MMX technology supported)
    FXSR (Fast floating-point save and restore)
    SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)
    SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
    Version: AMD Athlon(tm) 64 X2 Dual Core Processor 4200+
    Voltage: 1.3 V
    External Clock: 200 MHz
    Max Speed: 3700 MHz
    Current Speed: 2200 MHz
    Status: Populated, Enabled
    Upgrade:
    L1 Cache Handle: 0x000C
    L2 Cache Handle: 0x000E
    L3 Cache Handle: Not Provided
    Serial Number:
    Asset Tag:
    Part Number:

    Handle 0x0006, DMI type 5, 24 bytes.
    Memory Controller Information
    Error Detecting Method: 64-bit ECC
    Error Correcting Capabilities:
    None
    Supported Interleave: One-way Interleave
    Current Interleave: One-way Interleave
    Maximum Memory Module Size: 1024 MB
    Maximum Total Memory Size: 4096 MB
    Supported Speeds:
    70 ns
    60 ns
    50 ns
    Supported Memory Types:
    Standard
    SDRAM
    Memory Module Voltage: 2.9 V
    Associated Memory Slots: 4
    0x0007
    0x0008
    0x0009
    0x000A
    Enabled Error Correcting Capabilities: None

    Handle 0x0007, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    Memory Module Information
    Socket Designation: A0
    Bank Connections: 0 1
    Current Speed: 10 ns
    Type: DIMM
    Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Enabled Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Error Status: OK

    Handle 0x0008, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    Memory Module Information
    Socket Designation: A1
    Bank Connections: 2 3
    Current Speed: 10 ns
    Type: DIMM
    Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Enabled Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Error Status: OK

    Handle 0x0009, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    Memory Module Information
    Socket Designation: A2
    Bank Connections: 4 5
    Current Speed: 10 ns
    Type: DIMM
    Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Enabled Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Error Status: OK

    Handle 0x000A, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    Memory Module Information
    Socket Designation: A3
    Bank Connections: 6 7
    Current Speed: 10 ns
    Type: DIMM
    Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Enabled Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection)
    Error Status: OK

    Handle 0x000B, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    Cache Information
    Socket Designation: L1 Cache
    Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1
    Operational Mode: Write Back
    Location: Internal
    Installed Size: 128 KB
    Maximum Size: 128 KB
    Supported SRAM Types:
    Synchronous
    Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    Speed: Unknown
    Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC
    System Type: Data
    Associativity: 4-way Set-associative

    Handle 0x000C, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    Cache Information
    Socket Designation: L1 Cache
    Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1
    Operational Mode: Write Back
    Location: Internal
    Installed Size: 128 KB
    Maximum Size: 128 KB
    Supported SRAM Types:
    Synchronous
    Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    Speed: Unknown
    Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC
    System Type: Data
    Associativity: 4-way Set-associative

    Handle 0x000D, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    Cache Information
    Socket Designation: L2 Cache
    Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2
    Operational Mode: Write Back
    Location: Internal
    Installed Size: 512 KB
    Maximum Size: 512 KB
    Supported SRAM Types:
    Synchronous
    Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    Speed: Unknown
    Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC
    System Type: Unified
    Associativity: 4-way Set-associative

    Handle 0x000E, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    Cache Information
    Socket Designation: L2 Cache
    Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2
    Operational Mode: Write Back
    Location: Internal
    Installed Size: 512 KB
    Maximum Size: 512 KB
    Supported SRAM Types:
    Synchronous
    Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    Speed: Unknown
    Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC
    System Type: Unified
    Associativity: 4-way Set-associative

    Handle 0x000F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: PRIMARY IDE
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x0010, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SECONDARY IDE
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x0011, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: FDD
    Internal Connector Type: On Board Floppy
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: 8251 FIFO Compatible

    Handle 0x0012, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: COM1
    Internal Connector Type: 9 Pin Dual Inline (pin 10 cut)
    External Reference Designator:
    External Connector Type: DB-9 male
    Port Type: Serial Port 16450 Compatible

    Handle 0x0013, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: LPT1
    Internal Connector Type: DB-25 female
    External Reference Designator:
    External Connector Type: DB-25 female
    Port Type: Parallel Port ECP/EPP

    Handle 0x0014, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: PS/2 Keyboard
    Internal Connector Type: PS/2
    External Reference Designator:
    External Connector Type: PS/2
    Port Type: Keyboard Port

    Handle 0x0015, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: PS/2 Mouse
    Internal Connector Type: PS/2
    External Reference Designator:
    External Connector Type: PS/2
    Port Type: Mouse Port

    Handle 0x0016, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB1
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x0017, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB2
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x0018, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB3
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x0019, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB4
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB5
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB6
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB7
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB8
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB9
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x001F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: USB10
    External Connector Type: Other
    Port Type: USB

    Handle 0x0020, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Line In
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0021, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Line Out
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Line Out
    External Connector Type: Mini Jack (headphones)
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0022, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Mic In
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Mic In
    External Connector Type: Mini Jack (headphones)
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0023, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Back Surround L/R
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Back Surround L/R
    External Connector Type: Mini Jack (headphones)
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0024, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Side Surround L/R
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Side Surround L/R
    External Connector Type: Mini Jack (headphones)
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0025, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Center/LFE
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Center/LFE
    External Connector Type: Mini Jack (headphones)
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0026, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: CD In
    Internal Connector Type: On Board Sound Input From CD-ROM
    External Reference Designator: CD In
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0027, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Aux In
    Internal Connector Type: On Board Sound Input From CD-ROM
    External Reference Designator: Aux In
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0028, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SPDIF Out
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Audio SPDIF Out
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x0029, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Front Panel
    Internal Connector Type: Other
    External Reference Designator: Front Panel
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Audio Port

    Handle 0x002A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: ETHERNET
    External Connector Type: RJ-45
    Port Type: Network Port

    Handle 0x002B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Joystick
    External Connector Type: DB-15 female
    Port Type: Joystick Port

    Handle 0x002C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SATA1
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x002D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SATA2
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x002E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SATA3
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x002F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: SATA4
    Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x0030, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: MIDI
    External Connector Type: DB-15 female
    Port Type: MIDI Port

    Handle 0x0031, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: CHASSIS
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: Other

    Handle 0x0032, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: CPU_FAN1
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: None

    Handle 0x0033, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: CHIPSET_FAN1
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: None

    Handle 0x0034, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: PWR_FAN1
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: None

    Handle 0x0035, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: CHA_FAN1
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: None

    Handle 0x0036, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    Port Connector Information
    Internal Reference Designator: CHA_FAN2
    Internal Connector Type: None
    External Reference Designator: Not Specified
    External Connector Type: None
    Port Type: None

    Handle 0x0037, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCI1
    Type: 32-bit PCI
    Current Usage: In Use
    Length: Short
    ID: 1
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x0038, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCI2
    Type: 32-bit PCI
    Current Usage: Available
    Length: Short
    ID: 2
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x0039, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCI3
    Type: 32-bit PCI
    Current Usage: Available
    Length: Short
    ID: 3
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x003A, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCIEX16_1
    Type: x16 PCI Express
    Current Usage: In Use
    Length: Short
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x003B, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCIEX4_1
    Type: x4 PCI Express
    Current Usage: Available
    Length: Short
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x003C, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCIEX1_1
    Type: x1 PCI Express
    Current Usage: Available
    Length: Short
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x003D, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    System Slot Information
    Designation: PCIEX1_2
    Type: x1 PCI Express
    Current Usage: Available
    Length: Short
    Characteristics:
    5.0 V is provided
    PME signal is supported

    Handle 0x003E, DMI type 13, 22 bytes.
    BIOS Language Information
    Installable Languages: 3
    n|US|iso8859-1
    n|US|iso8859-1
    r|CA|iso8859-1
    Currently Installed Language: n|US|iso8859-1

    Handle 0x003F, DMI type 16, 15 bytes.
    Physical Memory Array
    Location: System Board Or Motherboard
    Use: System Memory
    Error Correction Type: None
    Maximum Capacity: 4 GB
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Number Of Devices: 4

    Handle 0x0040, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A0
    Bank Locator: Bank0/1
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0041, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A1
    Bank Locator: Bank2/3
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0042, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A2
    Bank Locator: Bank4/5
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0043, DMI type 17, 27 bytes.
    Memory Device
    Array Handle: 0x003F
    Error Information Handle: Not Provided
    Total Width: 64 bits
    Data Width: 64 bits
    Size: 1024 MB
    Form Factor: DIMM
    Set: None
    Locator: A3
    Bank Locator: Bank6/7
    Type: Unknown
    Type Detail: None
    Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    Manufacturer: None
    Serial Number: None
    Asset Tag: None
    Part Number: None

    Handle 0x0044, DMI type 19, 15 bytes.
    Memory Array Mapped Address
    Starting Address: 0x00000000000
    Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF
    Range Size: 4 GB
    Physical Array Handle: 0x003F
    Partition Width: 0

    Handle 0x0045, DMI type 20, 19 bytes.
    Memory Device Mapped Address
    Starting Address: 0x00000000000
    Ending Address: 0x0003FFFFFFF
    Range Size: 1 GB
    Physical Device Handle: 0x0040
    Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044
    Partition Row Position: 1

    Handle 0x0046, DMI type 20, 19 bytes.
    Memory Device Mapped Address
    Starting Address: 0x00040000000
    Ending Address: 0x0007FFFFFFF
    Range Size: 1 GB
    Physical Device Handle: 0x0041
    Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044
    Partition Row Position: 1

    Handle 0x0047, DMI type 20, 19 bytes.
    Memory Device Mapped Address
    Starting Address: 0x00080000000
    Ending Address: 0x000BFFFFFFF
    Range Size: 1 GB
    Physical Device Handle: 0x0042
    Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044
    Partition Row Position: 1

    Handle 0x0048, DMI type 20, 19 bytes.
    Memory Device Mapped Address
    Starting Address: 0x000C0000000
    Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF
    Range Size: 1 GB
    Physical Device Handle: 0x0043
    Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044
    Partition Row Position: 1

    Handle 0x0049, DMI type 32, 11 bytes.
    System Boot Information
    Status: No errors detected

    Handle 0x004A, DMI type 127, 4 bytes.
    End Of Table



  2. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    > This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I was
    > asking questions recently.
    >
    > I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9
    > months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated nightly via
    > crontab/yum.
    >
    > I used to have 2 GB, which was not enough because I was running some
    > extreme memory hogs (azureus and some of my usenet related scripts). I
    > used 2 memory slots out of 4. So, I bought two more memory sticks that
    > are 1 GB each. Supposedly similar to my existing DDR400 sticks.
    >
    > Here are some excerpts from dmidecode, with full output attached at the
    > bottom.
    >
    > Handle 0x003F, DMI type 16, 15 bytes. Physical Memory Array
    > Location: System Board Or Motherboard Use: System Memory
    > Error Correction Type: None
    > Maximum Capacity: 4 GB
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Number Of Devices: 4
    >
    > Handle 0x0040, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A0
    > Bank Locator: Bank0/1
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0041, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A1
    > Bank Locator: Bank2/3
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0042, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A2
    > Bank Locator: Bank4/5
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0043, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A3
    > Bank Locator: Bank6/7
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > So, I think that dmidecode seems four 1 GB DIMMs, and the mobo allows up
    > to 4 GB.
    >
    > And yet, 'free' says that I only have 3 GB:
    >
    > ::~==>free
    > total used free shared buffers
    > cached
    > Mem: 3099284 1226308 1872976 0 57596
    > 653148 -/+ buffers/cache: 515564 2583720 Swap: 1953432
    > 0 1953432
    >
    > How come? How can I tell this computer to use all four gigabytes?
    >
    > thanks
    >
    > i
    > P.S. dmidecode output to follow below
    >
    > ################################################## #################### #
    > dmidecode 2.7
    > SMBIOS 2.3 present.
    > 75 structures occupying 2217 bytes.
    > Table at 0x000F0000.
    >
    > Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 20 bytes.
    > BIOS Information
    > Vendor: Phoenix Technologies, LTD
    > Version: ASUS A8N5X ACPI BIOS Revision 0502 Release Date:

    11/08/2005
    > Address: 0xE0000
    > Runtime Size: 128 kB
    > ROM Size: 512 kB
    > Characteristics:
    > PCI is supported
    > PNP is supported
    > APM is supported
    > BIOS is upgradeable
    > BIOS shadowing is allowed
    > Boot from CD is supported
    > Selectable boot is supported
    > BIOS ROM is socketed
    > EDD is supported
    > 5.25"/360 KB floppy services are supported (int 13h)

    5.25"/1.2 MB
    > floppy services are supported (int 13h) 3.5"/720 KB

    floppy services
    > are supported (int 13h) 3.5"/2.88 MB floppy services are

    supported
    > (int 13h) Print screen service is supported (int 5h) 8042

    keyboard
    > services are supported (int 9h) Serial services are

    supported (int
    > 14h) Printer services are supported (int 17h) CGA/mono

    video services
    > are supported (int 10h) ACPI is supported
    > USB legacy is supported
    > LS-120 boot is supported
    > ATAPI Zip drive boot is supported
    > BIOS boot specification is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 25 bytes.
    > System Information
    > Manufacturer: System manufacturer
    > Product Name: System Product Name
    > Version: System Version
    > Serial Number: System Serial Number
    > UUID: 804176E8-C0C8-0F10-9660-D39C285FF480 Wake-up Type: Power

    Switch
    >
    > Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 8 bytes.
    > Base Board Information
    > Manufacturer: ASUSTeK Computer INC.
    > Product Name: A8N5X
    > Version: 1.XX
    > Serial Number: 123456789000
    >
    > Handle 0x0003, DMI type 3, 17 bytes.
    > Chassis Information
    > Manufacturer: Chassis Manufacture
    > Type: Desktop
    > Lock: Not Present
    > Version: Chassis Version
    > Serial Number: EVAL
    > Asset Tag: 123456789000
    > Boot-up State: Safe
    > Power Supply State: Safe
    > Thermal State: Safe
    > Security Status: None
    > OEM Information: 0x00000001
    >
    > Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 35 bytes.
    > Processor Information
    > Socket Designation: Socket 939
    > Type: Central Processor
    > Family: Athlon 64
    > Manufacturer: AMD
    > ID: B1 0F 02 00 FF FB 8B 17
    > Signature: Extended Family 0, Model B, Stepping 1 Flags:
    > FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
    > VME (Virtual mode extension)
    > DE (Debugging extension)
    > PSE (Page size extension)
    > TSC (Time stamp counter)
    > MSR (Model specific registers)
    > PAE (Physical address extension)
    > MCE (Machine check exception)
    > CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
    > APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported) SEP (Fast system

    call)
    > MTRR (Memory type range registers)
    > PGE (Page global enable)
    > MCA (Machine check architecture)
    > CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported) PAT (Page

    attribute
    > table)
    > PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
    > CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported) MMX (MMX technology

    supported)
    > FXSR (Fast floating-point save and restore) SSE

    (Streaming SIMD
    > extensions)
    > SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
    > HTT (Hyper-threading technology)
    > Version: AMD Athlon(tm) 64 X2 Dual Core Processor 4200+ Voltage:

    1.3 V
    > External Clock: 200 MHz
    > Max Speed: 3700 MHz
    > Current Speed: 2200 MHz
    > Status: Populated, Enabled
    > Upgrade:
    > L1 Cache Handle: 0x000B
    > L2 Cache Handle: 0x000D
    > L3 Cache Handle: Not Provided
    > Serial Number:
    > Asset Tag:
    > Part Number:
    >
    > Handle 0x0005, DMI type 4, 35 bytes.
    > Processor Information
    > Socket Designation: Socket 939
    > Type: Central Processor
    > Family: Athlon 64
    > Manufacturer: AMD
    > ID: B1 0F 02 00 FF FB 8B 07
    > Signature: Extended Family 0, Model B, Stepping 1 Flags:
    > FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
    > VME (Virtual mode extension)
    > DE (Debugging extension)
    > PSE (Page size extension)
    > TSC (Time stamp counter)
    > MSR (Model specific registers)
    > PAE (Physical address extension)
    > MCE (Machine check exception)
    > CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
    > APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported) SEP (Fast system

    call)
    > MTRR (Memory type range registers)
    > PGE (Page global enable)
    > MCA (Machine check architecture)
    > CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported) PAT (Page

    attribute
    > table)
    > PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
    > CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported) MMX (MMX technology

    supported)
    > FXSR (Fast floating-point save and restore) SSE

    (Streaming SIMD
    > extensions)
    > SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
    > Version: AMD Athlon(tm) 64 X2 Dual Core Processor 4200+ Voltage:

    1.3 V
    > External Clock: 200 MHz
    > Max Speed: 3700 MHz
    > Current Speed: 2200 MHz
    > Status: Populated, Enabled
    > Upgrade:
    > L1 Cache Handle: 0x000C
    > L2 Cache Handle: 0x000E
    > L3 Cache Handle: Not Provided
    > Serial Number:
    > Asset Tag:
    > Part Number:
    >
    > Handle 0x0006, DMI type 5, 24 bytes.
    > Memory Controller Information
    > Error Detecting Method: 64-bit ECC
    > Error Correcting Capabilities:
    > None
    > Supported Interleave: One-way Interleave Current Interleave: One-

    way
    > Interleave Maximum Memory Module Size: 1024 MB
    > Maximum Total Memory Size: 4096 MB
    > Supported Speeds:
    > 70 ns
    > 60 ns
    > 50 ns
    > Supported Memory Types:
    > Standard
    > SDRAM
    > Memory Module Voltage: 2.9 V
    > Associated Memory Slots: 4
    > 0x0007
    > 0x0008
    > 0x0009
    > 0x000A
    > Enabled Error Correcting Capabilities: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0007, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    > Memory Module Information
    > Socket Designation: A0
    > Bank Connections: 0 1
    > Current Speed: 10 ns
    > Type: DIMM
    > Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection) Enabled Size:

    1024 MB
    > (Double-bank Connection) Error Status: OK
    >
    > Handle 0x0008, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    > Memory Module Information
    > Socket Designation: A1
    > Bank Connections: 2 3
    > Current Speed: 10 ns
    > Type: DIMM
    > Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection) Enabled Size:

    1024 MB
    > (Double-bank Connection) Error Status: OK
    >
    > Handle 0x0009, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    > Memory Module Information
    > Socket Designation: A2
    > Bank Connections: 4 5
    > Current Speed: 10 ns
    > Type: DIMM
    > Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection) Enabled Size:

    1024 MB
    > (Double-bank Connection) Error Status: OK
    >
    > Handle 0x000A, DMI type 6, 12 bytes.
    > Memory Module Information
    > Socket Designation: A3
    > Bank Connections: 6 7
    > Current Speed: 10 ns
    > Type: DIMM
    > Installed Size: 1024 MB (Double-bank Connection) Enabled Size:

    1024 MB
    > (Double-bank Connection) Error Status: OK
    >
    > Handle 0x000B, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    > Cache Information
    > Socket Designation: L1 Cache
    > Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1 Operational Mode:

    Write
    > Back
    > Location: Internal
    > Installed Size: 128 KB
    > Maximum Size: 128 KB
    > Supported SRAM Types:
    > Synchronous
    > Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    > Speed: Unknown
    > Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC System Type: Data
    > Associativity: 4-way Set-associative
    >
    > Handle 0x000C, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    > Cache Information
    > Socket Designation: L1 Cache
    > Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1 Operational Mode:

    Write
    > Back
    > Location: Internal
    > Installed Size: 128 KB
    > Maximum Size: 128 KB
    > Supported SRAM Types:
    > Synchronous
    > Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    > Speed: Unknown
    > Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC System Type: Data
    > Associativity: 4-way Set-associative
    >
    > Handle 0x000D, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    > Cache Information
    > Socket Designation: L2 Cache
    > Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2 Operational Mode:

    Write
    > Back
    > Location: Internal
    > Installed Size: 512 KB
    > Maximum Size: 512 KB
    > Supported SRAM Types:
    > Synchronous
    > Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    > Speed: Unknown
    > Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC System Type: Unified
    > Associativity: 4-way Set-associative
    >
    > Handle 0x000E, DMI type 7, 19 bytes.
    > Cache Information
    > Socket Designation: L2 Cache
    > Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2 Operational Mode:

    Write
    > Back
    > Location: Internal
    > Installed Size: 512 KB
    > Maximum Size: 512 KB
    > Supported SRAM Types:
    > Synchronous
    > Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
    > Speed: Unknown
    > Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC System Type: Unified
    > Associativity: 4-way Set-associative
    >
    > Handle 0x000F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: PRIMARY IDE Internal Connector

    Type: On
    > Board IDE External Reference Designator: Not Specified External
    > Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x0010, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SECONDARY IDE Internal Connector

    Type:
    > On Board IDE External Reference Designator: Not Specified External
    > Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x0011, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: FDD
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board Floppy External Reference

    Designator:
    > Not Specified External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: 8251 FIFO Compatible
    >
    > Handle 0x0012, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: COM1
    > Internal Connector Type: 9 Pin Dual Inline (pin 10 cut) External
    > Reference Designator:
    > External Connector Type: DB-9 male
    > Port Type: Serial Port 16450 Compatible
    >
    > Handle 0x0013, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: LPT1
    > Internal Connector Type: DB-25 female External Reference

    Designator:
    > External Connector Type: DB-25 female Port Type: Parallel Port

    ECP/EPP
    >
    > Handle 0x0014, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: PS/2 Keyboard Internal Connector

    Type:
    > PS/2
    > External Reference Designator:
    > External Connector Type: PS/2
    > Port Type: Keyboard Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0015, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: PS/2 Mouse Internal Connector

    Type: PS/2
    > External Reference Designator:
    > External Connector Type: PS/2
    > Port Type: Mouse Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0016, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB1
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x0017, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB2
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x0018, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB3
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x0019, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB4
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB5
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB6
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB7
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB8
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB9
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x001F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: USB10
    > External Connector Type: Other
    > Port Type: USB
    >
    > Handle 0x0020, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: Line In External Connector Type:

    None
    > Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0021, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Line Out Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Line Out External Connector Type:

    Mini
    > Jack (headphones) Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0022, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Mic In Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Mic In External Connector Type:

    Mini
    > Jack (headphones) Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0023, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Back Surround L/R Internal

    Connector
    > Type: None
    > External Reference Designator: Back Surround L/R External

    Connector
    > Type: Mini Jack (headphones) Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0024, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Side Surround L/R Internal

    Connector
    > Type: None
    > External Reference Designator: Side Surround L/R External

    Connector
    > Type: Mini Jack (headphones) Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0025, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Center/LFE Internal Connector

    Type: None
    > External Reference Designator: Center/LFE External Connector

    Type: Mini
    > Jack (headphones) Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0026, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: CD In
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board Sound Input From CD-ROM External
    > Reference Designator: CD In
    > External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0027, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Aux In Internal Connector Type: On

    Board
    > Sound Input From CD-ROM External Reference Designator: Aux In

    External
    > Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0028, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SPDIF Out Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Audio SPDIF Out External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0029, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Front Panel Internal Connector

    Type:
    > Other
    > External Reference Designator: Front Panel External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: Audio Port
    >
    > Handle 0x002A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: ETHERNET External Connector Type:

    RJ-45
    > Port Type: Network Port
    >
    > Handle 0x002B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: Joystick External Connector Type:

    DB-15
    > female Port Type: Joystick Port
    >
    > Handle 0x002C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SATA1
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE External Reference

    Designator:
    > Not Specified External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x002D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SATA2
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE External Reference

    Designator:
    > Not Specified External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x002E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SATA3
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE External Reference

    Designator:
    > Not Specified External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x002F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: SATA4
    > Internal Connector Type: On Board IDE External Reference

    Designator:
    > Not Specified External Connector Type: None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x0030, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: MIDI
    > External Connector Type: DB-15 female Port Type: MIDI Port
    >
    > Handle 0x0031, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: Not Specified Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: CHASSIS External Connector Type:

    None
    > Port Type: Other
    >
    > Handle 0x0032, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: CPU_FAN1 Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Not Specified External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0033, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: CHIPSET_FAN1 Internal Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > External Reference Designator: Not Specified External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0034, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: PWR_FAN1 Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Not Specified External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0035, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: CHA_FAN1 Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Not Specified External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0036, DMI type 8, 9 bytes.
    > Port Connector Information
    > Internal Reference Designator: CHA_FAN2 Internal Connector Type:

    None
    > External Reference Designator: Not Specified External Connector

    Type:
    > None
    > Port Type: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0037, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCI1
    > Type: 32-bit PCI
    > Current Usage: In Use
    > Length: Short
    > ID: 1
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x0038, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCI2
    > Type: 32-bit PCI
    > Current Usage: Available
    > Length: Short
    > ID: 2
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x0039, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCI3
    > Type: 32-bit PCI
    > Current Usage: Available
    > Length: Short
    > ID: 3
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x003A, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCIEX16_1
    > Type: x16 PCI Express
    > Current Usage: In Use
    > Length: Short
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x003B, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCIEX4_1
    > Type: x4 PCI Express
    > Current Usage: Available
    > Length: Short
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x003C, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCIEX1_1
    > Type: x1 PCI Express
    > Current Usage: Available
    > Length: Short
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x003D, DMI type 9, 13 bytes.
    > System Slot Information
    > Designation: PCIEX1_2
    > Type: x1 PCI Express
    > Current Usage: Available
    > Length: Short
    > Characteristics:
    > 5.0 V is provided
    > PME signal is supported
    >
    > Handle 0x003E, DMI type 13, 22 bytes. BIOS Language Information
    > Installable Languages: 3
    > n|US|iso8859-1
    > n|US|iso8859-1
    > r|CA|iso8859-1
    > Currently Installed Language: n|US|iso8859-1
    >
    > Handle 0x003F, DMI type 16, 15 bytes. Physical Memory Array
    > Location: System Board Or Motherboard Use: System Memory
    > Error Correction Type: None
    > Maximum Capacity: 4 GB
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Number Of Devices: 4
    >
    > Handle 0x0040, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A0
    > Bank Locator: Bank0/1
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0041, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A1
    > Bank Locator: Bank2/3
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0042, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A2
    > Bank Locator: Bank4/5
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0043, DMI type 17, 27 bytes. Memory Device
    > Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits
    > Data Width: 64 bits
    > Size: 1024 MB
    > Form Factor: DIMM
    > Set: None
    > Locator: A3
    > Bank Locator: Bank6/7
    > Type: Unknown
    > Type Detail: None
    > Speed: 200 MHz (5.0 ns)
    > Manufacturer: None
    > Serial Number: None
    > Asset Tag: None
    > Part Number: None
    >
    > Handle 0x0044, DMI type 19, 15 bytes. Memory Array Mapped Address
    > Starting Address: 0x00000000000
    > Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF
    > Range Size: 4 GB
    > Physical Array Handle: 0x003F
    > Partition Width: 0
    >
    > Handle 0x0045, DMI type 20, 19 bytes. Memory Device Mapped Address
    > Starting Address: 0x00000000000
    > Ending Address: 0x0003FFFFFFF
    > Range Size: 1 GB
    > Physical Device Handle: 0x0040
    > Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044 Partition Row

    Position: 1
    >
    > Handle 0x0046, DMI type 20, 19 bytes. Memory Device Mapped Address
    > Starting Address: 0x00040000000
    > Ending Address: 0x0007FFFFFFF
    > Range Size: 1 GB
    > Physical Device Handle: 0x0041
    > Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044 Partition Row

    Position: 1
    >
    > Handle 0x0047, DMI type 20, 19 bytes. Memory Device Mapped Address
    > Starting Address: 0x00080000000
    > Ending Address: 0x000BFFFFFFF
    > Range Size: 1 GB
    > Physical Device Handle: 0x0042
    > Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044 Partition Row

    Position: 1
    >
    > Handle 0x0048, DMI type 20, 19 bytes. Memory Device Mapped Address
    > Starting Address: 0x000C0000000
    > Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF
    > Range Size: 1 GB
    > Physical Device Handle: 0x0043
    > Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0044 Partition Row

    Position: 1
    >
    > Handle 0x0049, DMI type 32, 11 bytes. System Boot Information
    > Status: No errors detected
    >
    > Handle 0x004A, DMI type 127, 4 bytes. End Of Table


    Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    Remapping, if there is turn it on. You will also need to be running
    either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    2.6.14 or higher.


  3. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    > On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:
    >
    >> This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I was
    >> asking questions recently.
    >>
    >> I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9
    >> months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated nightly via
    >> crontab/yum.
    >>
    >> I used to have 2 GB, which was not enough because I was running some
    >> extreme memory hogs (azureus and some of my usenet related scripts). I
    >> used 2 memory slots out of 4. So, I bought two more memory sticks that
    >> are 1 GB each. Supposedly similar to my existing DDR400 sticks.
    >>
    >> Here are some excerpts from dmidecode, with full output attached at the
    >> bottom.
    >>

    >
    > Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    > Remapping, if there is turn it on.


    Will do.

    > You will also need to be running
    > either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    > has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    > 2.6.14 or higher.
    >


    I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I
    wrong? What is the limit of the regular kernel?

    i

  4. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:42:49 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    > On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph
    > wrote:
    >> On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:
    >>
    >>> This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I
    >>> was asking questions recently.
    >>>
    >>> I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9
    >>> months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated nightly via
    >>> crontab/yum.
    >>>
    >>> I used to have 2 GB, which was not enough because I was running some
    >>> extreme memory hogs (azureus and some of my usenet related scripts). I
    >>> used 2 memory slots out of 4. So, I bought two more memory sticks that
    >>> are 1 GB each. Supposedly similar to my existing DDR400 sticks.
    >>>
    >>> Here are some excerpts from dmidecode, with full output attached at
    >>> the bottom.
    >>>
    >>>

    >> Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    >> Remapping, if there is turn it on.

    >
    > Will do.
    >
    >> You will also need to be running
    >> either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel
    >> that has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to
    >> be 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>
    >>

    > I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I wrong?
    > What is the limit of the regular kernel?
    >
    > i


    The x86 has a lot of memory management modes and Linux supports all of
    them. There is a 1G mode, a 4G mode, a 64G mode and a 64 bit mode. Most
    standard 32 but kernels use the 4G mode. IO eats up some of the memory
    space so if you use a 4G kernel you will see less than 4G of RAM. If you
    use the 64G 32 bit kernel then you will be able to use all 4G, however
    each thread will be limited to 3G. If you use a 64 bit kernel then every
    thread can see your entire memory. If you are running a 32 bit distro the
    first thing you should do is install large RAM kernel, usually called the
    Enterprise kernel.

    I always use a 64 bit distro on my 4G systems, I use a 32 distro on my
    systems with less than 4G.

  5. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    Ignoramus13980 writes:

    > On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    >> On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    >
    >> You will also need to be running
    >> either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    >> has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    >> 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>

    >
    > I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I
    > wrong? What is the limit of the regular kernel?


    I'm fairly sure the regular kernel will handle 4 gigs of RAM. 4 gigs of RAM
    is the maximum. However, individual programs will be limited to a max of 3
    gigs each (but multiple running programs will be able to use the max amount
    of memory, collectively). The actual available memory should be slightly
    less than 4gigs.

    Also, take a look at /proc/meminfo, it gives a few extra bits of information
    that's not shown by top, etc.


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  6. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 21:22:30 -0500, Sam wrote:
    >> On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    >>> On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    >>
    >>> You will also need to be running
    >>> either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    >>> has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    >>> 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>>

    >>
    >> I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I
    >> wrong? What is the limit of the regular kernel?

    >
    > I'm fairly sure the regular kernel will handle 4 gigs of RAM. 4 gigs of RAM
    > is the maximum. However, individual programs will be limited to a max of 3
    > gigs each (but multiple running programs will be able to use the max amount
    > of memory, collectively). The actual available memory should be slightly
    > less than 4gigs.


    I would hope for just that.

    > Also, take a look at /proc/meminfo, it gives a few extra bits of information
    > that's not shown by top, etc.


    /proc/meminfo also says 3 GB is available:

    MemTotal: 3099284 kB
    MemFree: 178168 kB
    Buffers: 41792 kB
    Cached: 1018160 kB
    SwapCached: 0 kB
    Active: 2087216 kB
    Inactive: 762920 kB
    HighTotal: 2228160 kB
    HighFree: 3896 kB
    LowTotal: 871124 kB
    LowFree: 174272 kB
    SwapTotal: 1953432 kB
    SwapFree: 1953192 kB
    Dirty: 5184 kB
    Writeback: 0 kB
    AnonPages: 1789912 kB
    Mapped: 87900 kB
    Slab: 42404 kB
    SReclaimable: 23616 kB
    SUnreclaim: 18788 kB
    PageTables: 10724 kB
    NFS_Unstable: 0 kB
    Bounce: 0 kB
    CommitLimit: 3503072 kB
    Committed_AS: 2384752 kB
    VmallocTotal: 114680 kB
    VmallocUsed: 5156 kB
    VmallocChunk: 108900 kB
    HugePages_Total: 0
    HugePages_Free: 0
    HugePages_Rsvd: 0
    Hugepagesize: 4096 kB

  7. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    Ignoramus13980 writes:

    > On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 21:22:30 -0500, Sam wrote:
    >
    >> Also, take a look at /proc/meminfo, it gives a few extra bits of information
    >> that's not shown by top, etc.

    >
    > /proc/meminfo also says 3 GB is available:
    >
    > MemTotal: 3099284 kB


    Yah. Try twiddling your BIOS settings. The BIOS might be hiding a few bits
    under the carpet, somewhere.

    If you still can't figure it out, your next step is the linux-kernel mailing
    list. Post all the original info you posted here, also indicate your
    specific kernel version, as well as the output of 'lspci -vv" and "lspci -n"
    commands. Good luck.


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    =3HpT
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  8. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    > Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    > Remapping, if there is turn it on. You will also need to be running
    > either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    > has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    > 2.6.14 or higher.
    >


    Bad news is, my BIOS already sees 4GB of memory, and those remapping
    options (software and hardware remapping) are turned on.

    i

  9. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 22:11:28 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    > On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph
    > wrote:
    >> Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    >> Remapping, if there is turn it on. You will also need to be running
    >> either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel
    >> that has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to
    >> be 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>
    >>

    > Bad news is, my BIOS already sees 4GB of memory, and those remapping
    > options (software and hardware remapping) are turned on.
    >
    > i


    Then the problem is your kernel, install a different kernel.

  10. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    Sam wrote:

    > I'm fairly sure the regular kernel will handle 4 gigs of RAM.


    No it won't. You need a High-Mem or PAE enabled kernel.

    > 4 gigs of
    > RAM is the maximum.


    4GB is you address space. 32 bit x86 can address 64GB of memory using PAE.



    Igmar

  11. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    > On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:42:49 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:
    >
    >> On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph
    >> wrote:
    >>> On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:
    >>>
    >>>> This is in regards to my HOME computer, not the server about which I
    >>>> was asking questions recently.
    >>>>
    >>>> I have a relatively modern computer (which I put together by myself 9
    >>>> months ago) with Fedora Core 6, which is updated nightly via
    >>>> crontab/yum.
    >>>>
    >>>> I used to have 2 GB, which was not enough because I was running some
    >>>> extreme memory hogs (azureus and some of my usenet related scripts). I
    >>>> used 2 memory slots out of 4. So, I bought two more memory sticks that
    >>>> are 1 GB each. Supposedly similar to my existing DDR400 sticks.
    >>>>
    >>>> Here are some excerpts from dmidecode, with full output attached at
    >>>> the bottom.
    >>>>
    >>>>
    >>> Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    >>> Remapping, if there is turn it on.

    >> Will do.
    >>
    >>> You will also need to be running
    >>> either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel
    >>> that has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to
    >>> be 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>>
    >>>

    >> I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I wrong?
    >> What is the limit of the regular kernel?
    >>
    >> i

    >
    > The x86 has a lot of memory management modes and Linux supports all of
    > them. There is a 1G mode, a 4G mode, a 64G mode and a 64 bit mode. Most
    > standard 32 but kernels use the 4G mode. IO eats up some of the memory
    > space so if you use a 4G kernel you will see less than 4G of RAM. If you
    > use the 64G 32 bit kernel then you will be able to use all 4G, however
    > each thread will be limited to 3G. If you use a 64 bit kernel then every
    > thread can see your entire memory. If you are running a 32 bit distro the
    > first thing you should do is install large RAM kernel, usually called the
    > Enterprise kernel.
    >
    > I always use a 64 bit distro on my 4G systems, I use a 32 distro on my
    > systems with less than 4G.


    I have 8 GBytes Ram on a *86 (32-bit) machine and use Red Hat's "Hugemem"
    kernel or something like that. You can set it up so each process can see 4
    GBytes of virtual memory (and real memory, too, if the working set demands
    it), as can the kernel. I do not know if the kernel actually uses 4 GBytes
    for itself if it wants to, but I suspect it does. For example, right now, I
    am running nothing much.

    $ free
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 8208852 8130072 78780 0 649040 6167396
    -/+ buffers/cache: 1313636 6895216
    Swap: 8193076 0 8193076

    Since there are 6 GBytes cached, I infer the kernel is taking more than 4
    GBytes for it, and has room for itself as well.

    --
    .~. Jean-David Beyer Registered Linux User 85642.
    /V\ PGP-Key: 9A2FC99A Registered Machine 241939.
    /( )\ Shrewsbury, New Jersey http://counter.li.org
    ^^-^^ 07:10:01 up 68 days, 18:38, 4 users, load average: 4.31, 4.20, 4.16

  12. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    Sam wrote:
    > Ignoramus13980 writes:
    >
    >> On 26 Apr 2007 01:34:20 GMT, General Schvantzkoph
    >> wrote:
    >>> On Wed, 25 Apr 2007 20:18:41 -0500, Ignoramus13980 wrote:

    >>
    >>> You will also need to be running either a 64 bit kernel or an
    >>> enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that has been compiled to
    >>> support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be 2.6.14 or higher.
    >>>

    >>
    >> I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I
    >> wrong? What is the limit of the regular kernel?

    >
    > I'm fairly sure the regular kernel will handle 4 gigs of RAM.


    Yes.

    > 4 gigs of
    > RAM is the maximum.


    No. I think 64 Gigabytes is maximum, provide you have the right processors
    and chipset and motherboard. I have dual Xeons (32-bit, sort of), Intel
    E7501 chipset, and SuperMicro X5DP8-G2 motherboard.

    > However, individual programs will be limited to a
    > max of 3 gigs each (but multiple running programs will be able to use
    > the max amount of memory, collectively).


    Not necessarily. For my 32-bit machine I have

    $ free
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 8208852 8130072 78780 0 649040 6167396
    -/+ buffers/cache: 1313636 6895216
    Swap: 8193076 0 8193076

    You have to configure the kernel to allow 4 GBytes/process, and you need
    more than 4 GBytes of RAM I think (I have 8 GBytes). You can see the kernel
    is getting 0.65 GBytes for buffers, and 6.2 GBytes for cache. Also it must
    be getting space for whatever else it does, such as its own code and data.

    > The actual available memory
    > should be slightly less than 4gigs.
    >
    > Also, take a look at /proc/meminfo, it gives a few extra bits of
    > information that's not shown by top, etc.
    >



    --
    .~. Jean-David Beyer Registered Linux User 85642.
    /V\ PGP-Key: 9A2FC99A Registered Machine 241939.
    /( )\ Shrewsbury, New Jersey http://counter.li.org
    ^^-^^ 07:10:01 up 68 days, 18:38, 4 users, load average: 4.31, 4.20, 4.16

  13. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    I read somewhere that the Linux RAM limits spoken of (either 4G/64G,
    whatever) are inclusive of swap. So if you have 4G physical and stock
    kernel, delete your swap, then you should see all the 4G ram...again
    just something I read.

    -RWM


  14. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On Thu, 26 Apr 2007 07:10:56 -0700, reid.maynard wrote:

    > I read somewhere that the Linux RAM limits spoken of (either 4G/64G,
    > whatever) are inclusive of swap. So if you have 4G physical and stock
    > kernel, delete your swap, then you should see all the 4G ram...again
    > just something I read.
    >
    > -RWM


    The SWAP space is on top of your physical RAM, the Physical RAM has
    priority, getting rind of swap won't help. With 4G kernels the problem is
    that 1G is being used for IO. The solution is easy, use a different
    kernel. Every distro offers several kernels, all you have to do is
    install a large memory kernel, it's a trivial process.

  15. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    On 26 Apr 2007 14:29:40 GMT, General Schvantzkoph wrote:
    > On Thu, 26 Apr 2007 07:10:56 -0700, reid.maynard wrote:
    >
    >> I read somewhere that the Linux RAM limits spoken of (either 4G/64G,
    >> whatever) are inclusive of swap. So if you have 4G physical and stock
    >> kernel, delete your swap, then you should see all the 4G ram...again
    >> just something I read.
    >>
    >> -RWM

    >
    > The SWAP space is on top of your physical RAM, the Physical RAM has
    > priority, getting rind of swap won't help. With 4G kernels the problem is
    > that 1G is being used for IO. The solution is easy, use a different
    > kernel. Every distro offers several kernels, all you have to do is
    > install a large memory kernel, it's a trivial process.


    I am going to try kernel-PAE tonight. It is a Fedora package that I
    installed this morning. I am away from home and do not like to reboot
    computers remotely.

    i

  16. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    In the sacred domain of comp.os.linux.misc, General Schvantzkoph didnst hastily scribble thusly:
    > Go into your BIOS and see if there is an option called Memory Hole
    > Remapping, if there is turn it on. You will also need to be running
    > either a 64 bit kernel or an enterprise 32 bit kernel (i.e. a kernel that
    > has been compiled to support 64G of RAM). The kernel also needs to be
    > 2.6.14 or higher.


    Good GOD man, have you never heard of snipping?!
    --
    __________________________________________________ ____________________________
    | spike1@freenet.co.uk | |
    |Andrew Halliwell BSc(hons)| "The day Microsoft makes something that doesn't |
    | in | suck is probably the day they start making |
    | Computer science | vacuum cleaners" - Ernst Jan Plugge |
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  17. Re: 4 GB installed -- but Linux sees only 3

    In the sacred domain of comp.os.linux.misc, Ignoramus13980 didnst hastily scribble thusly:
    > I thought that a regular kernel supports any memory size? Was I
    > wrong? What is the limit of the regular kernel?


    In a 32bit kernel it's only capable of addressing 4gig in total.
    That includes not only the kernel space itself, but also all the I/O space
    that is memory mapped. Typically, that loses you quite a bit of RAM and some
    motherboards may claim the full top 1gig.

    If you have a kernel with PAE enabled though, this should open up the final
    gig of RAM for you. (If there's no BIGMEM kernel available (or whatever it's
    called depending on distro) it can be compiled in.
    --
    | |What to do if you find yourself stuck in a crack|
    | spike1@freenet.co.uk |in the ground beneath a giant boulder, which you|
    | |can't move, with no hope of rescue. |
    |Andrew Halliwell BSc(hons)|Consider how lucky you are that life has been |
    | in |good to you so far... |
    | Computer Science | -The BOOK, Hitch-hiker's guide to the galaxy.|

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