Where is this information documented? I want to know where the values,
as set using the Firewall Dialog from Control Panel, are stored.

There are a few Firewall Settings that can be set by either:
1. Group Policy
2. Using the Windows Firewall UI from Control Panel.

Where are the values that a user sets for the following settings using
Control Panel>Windows Firewall UI dialog?

1.Windows Firewall>Advanced Tab>Security Logging SETTINGS Button...>

Logging Options>

1. Log dropped Packets
2. Log successful connections

Log File Options>
1. Name
2. Size Limit(KB)

2. Windows Firewall>Advanced Tab>ICMP Settings